Efficacy and safety of Reyanning mixture in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant: A prospective, open-label, randomized controlled trial.
Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 2023;:154514
BACKGROUND A wave of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant rapidly resulted in a steep increase in the infected population and an overloaded healthcare system. Effective medications for Omicron are currently limited. The previous observational study supports the efficacy and safety of Reyanning (RYN) mixture in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PURPOSE To evaluate the efficacy of RYN in asymptomatic and mildly infected patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS This study was a prospective, open-label, randomized controlled trial. We consecutively recruited 2830 patients from Shanghai New International Expo Center mobile cabin hospital and randomized them in a 1:1 ratio to receive RYN plus standard care or receive standard care alone. The primary outcomes were the negative conversion of nucleic acid. Secondary outcomes included the hospital duration, new-onset symptoms, proportion of disease progression, and the viral load measured by the cycle threshold (Ct) value. RESULTS A total of 1393 patients in the intervention group and 1407 patients in the control group completed the study. The negative conversion time of nucleic acid was significantly shortened in the intervention group (median: 6 d vs. 7 d, Hazard ratio: 0.768, 95CI %: 0.713-0.828, p < 0.0001). The negative conversion rate of nucleic acid was significantly higher in the intervention group (Day 3: 32.4% vs. 18.3%; Day7: 65.3% vs. 55.2%, p < 0.001). The hospitalization duration was significantly shortened in the intervention group (median: 8 d vs. 9 d, Hazard ratio: 0.759, 95% CI: 0.704-0.818, p < 0.0001). The proportion of new-onset fever (2.4% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.012), coughing (12.2% vs. 14.8%, p = 0.046), and expectoration (6.0% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.032) in the intervention group was significantly lower. RYN treatment increased Ct values and reduced the viral load. No disease progression and serious adverse events were reported during the study. CONCLUSION RYN is a safe and effective treatment that can accelerate virus clearance and promote disease recovery in asymptomatic and mild Omicron infections.
Clinical efficacy of Jingyin granules, a Chinese patent medicine, in treating patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019.
Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 2023;:154496
BACKGROUND Jingyin granules (JY), one patented Chinese herbal formula, have been advised for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. As of now, the safety and effectiveness of JY in treating COVID-19 patients were still to be evaluated. PURPOSE To investigate the safety and clinical effectiveness of JY in treating mild COVID-19 patients. STUDY DESIGN We carried out a prospective cohort study, as the highly infectious COVID-19 omicron variant ranged in Shanghai (ClinicalTrial.gov registration number: ChiCTR2200058692). METHODS Participants infected with COVID-19, who were diagnosed as mild cases, were assigned to receive either JY (JY group) or traditional Chinese medicine placebo (placebo group) orally for 7 days. The primary clinical indicators were the RNA negative conversion rate (NCR) and the incidence of severe cases. The secondary clinical indicators were the negative conversion time (NCT), inpatient length of stay (ILOS), and the disappearance rates of clinical symptoms. RESULTS Nine hundred participants were recruited in this clinical trial study, and 830 patients met the eligibility criteria. Seven hundred and ninety-one patients, accomplished the following-up assessment, including 423 cases of JY group and 368 cases of placebo group. NCR in JY group at 7-day posttreatment was considerably greater compared with placebo group (89.8% [380/423] vs 82.6% [304/368], P = 0.003). None of the patients with mild COVID-19 developed into severe cases. The median NCT of SARS-CoV-2 and ILOS in JY group were lesser than that in placebo group (4.0 [3.0,6.0]vs 5.0 [4.0,7.0] days, P < 0.001; 6.0 [4.0, 8.0] vs 7.0 [5.0, 9.0] days, P < 0.001). In both groups, the obvious improvement in clinical symptoms was observed, but the difference was not significant. In the subgroup of age ≤ 60 years, JY promoted SARS-CoV-2 RNA negative conversion (HR=1.242; 95% CI: 1.069-1.444, P < 0.001). No patients in both groups were reported as the case of serious adverse event. CONCLUSION JY maybe the potential medicine for treating mild COVID-19 patients, which had beneficial effects on increasing NCR, and shortening NCT and ILOS.
Effective multipurpose sewage sludge and food waste reduction strategies: A focus on recent advances and future perspectives.
Chemosphere. 2023;(Pt 1):136670
Energy crisis and increasing rigorous management standards pose significant challenges for solid waste management worldwide. Several emerging diseases such as COVID-19 aggravated the already complex solid waste management crisis, especially sewage sludge and food waste streams, because of the increasingly large production year by year. As mature waste disposal technologies, landfills, incineration, composting, and some other methods are widespread for solid wastes management. This paper reviews recent advances in key sewage sludge disposal technologies. These include incineration, anaerobic digestion, and valuable products oriented-conversion. Food waste disposal technologies comprised of thermal treatment, fermentation, value-added product conversion, and composting have also been described. The hot topic and dominant research foci of each area are summarized, simultaneously compared with conventional technologies in terms of organic matter degradation or conversion performance, energy generation, and renewable resources production. Future perspectives of each technology that include issues not well understood and predicted challenges are discussed with a positive effect on the full-scale implementation of the discussed disposal methods.
Development and evaluation of a fluidic facemask for airborne transmission mitigation.
Experimental thermal and fluid science. 2023;:110777
Recently, a fluidic facemask concept was proposed to mitigate the transmission of virus-laden aerosol and droplet infections, such as SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). This paper describes an experimental investigation of the first practical fluidic facemask prototype, or "Air-Screen". It employs a small, high-aspect-ratio, crossflow fan mounted on the visor of a filter-covered cap to produce a rectangular air jet, or screen, in front of the wearer's face. The entire assembly weighs less than 200 g. Qualitative flow visualization experiments using a mannequin clearly illustrated the Air-Screen's ability to effectively block airborne droplets (∼100 µm) from the wearer's face. Quantitative experiments to simulate droplets produced during sneezing or a wet cough (∼102 µm) were propelled (via a transmitter) at an average velocity of 50 m/s at 1 m from the mannequin or a target. The Air-Screen blocked 62% of all droplets with a diameter of less than 150 µm. With an Air-Screen active on the transmitter, 99% of all droplets were blocked. When both mannequin and transmitter Air-Screens were active, 99.8% of all droplets were blocked. A mathematical model, based on a weakly-advected jet in a crossflow, was employed to gain greater insight into the experimental results. This investigation highlighted the remarkable blocking effect of the Air-Screen and serves as a basis for a more detailed and comprehensive experimental evaluation.
An integrative analysis of Qingfei Paidu Decoction for its anti-HCoV-229E mechanism in cold and damp environment based on the pharmacokinetics, metabolomics and molecular docking technology.
Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 2023;:154527
BACKGROUND The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) has spread rapidly around the world. As a member against the epidemic, Qingfei Paidu Decoction (QFPDD) has been approved for the treatment of COVID-19 in China. However, its antiviral mechanism was still largely unclear. PURPOSE An integrated strategy was used to explore the antiviral mechanisms of QFPDD in cold and damp environment, including pharmacokinetic (PK), network pharmacology, metabolomics and protein verification. METHODS Firstly, the pharmacokinetic study of the prototype absorbed ingredients were analyzed by UHPLC-QqQ-MS. Secondly, the metabolomics analysis of the endogenous constituents was carried out. Based on the aforementioned results, an integrated network was constructed to identify the curative components, crucial endogenous differential metabolites and related pathways. Finally, the validation tests were implemented by molecular docking and western blotting (WB). RESULTS According to the pharmacokinetic behaviors analysis of 31 components in vivo, the flavonoids presented more longer residence time and higher exposure compared with the other compounds. The efficacy and antiviral mechanism of QFPDD were verified by the poly-pharmacology, metabolomics, molecular docking and WB. For the occurrence of metabolic disorder, the change of amino acid transporters should not be neglected. Afterward, 8 curative compounds, 6 key genes and corresponding metabolic pathways were filtered by compound-reaction-enzyme-gene network. The molecular docking verified that the active ingredients bound to the relevant targets well. CONCLUSION In the present study, an in vivo comprehensive pharmacokinetic behaviors of QFPDD was analyzed for the first time. The results illustrated that QFPDD could exhibit immune regulation, anti-infection, anti-inflammation and metabolic disorder to perform a corresponding therapeutic effect. Moreover, our findings highlighted the roles of amino acid transporters in the coronavirus infection situation.
Tools to Alleviate the Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2022;(20)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), an acid-fast bacillus that causes Tuberculosis (TB), is a pathogen that caused 1.5 million deaths in 2020. As per WHO estimates, another 4.1 million people are suffering from latent TB, either asymptomatic or not diagnosed, and the frequency of drug resistance is increasing due to intrinsically linked factors from both host and bacterium. For instance, poor access to TB diagnosis and reduced treatment in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in more TB deaths and an 18% reduction in newly diagnosed cases of TB. Additionally, the detection of Mtb isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple drugs (MDR, XDR, and TDR) has complicated the scenario in the pathogen's favour. Moreover, the conventional methods to detect drug resistance may miss mutations, making it challenging to decide on the treatment regimen. However, owing to collaborative initiatives, the last two decades have witnessed several advancements in both the detection methods and drug discovery against drug-resistant isolates. The majority of them belong to nucleic acid detection techniques. In this review, we highlight and summarize the molecular mechanism underlying drug resistance in Mtb, the recent advancements in resistance detection methods, and the newer drugs used against drug-resistant TB.
Where are we with the use of N-acetylcysteine as a preventive and adjuvant treatment for COVID-19?
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. 2022;(2):715-721
OBJECTIVE As N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is promising as a re-purposed drug for the adjunctive or supportive treatment of serious COVID-19, this article aimed to describe current evidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS A search was performed in PubMed/Medline for "NAC", "viral Infection", COVID-19", oxidative stress", "inflammation", retrieving preclinical and clinical studies. RESULTS NAC is a pleiotropic molecule with a dual antioxidant mechanism; it may neutralize free radicals and acts as a donor of cysteine, restoring the physiological pool of GSH. Serious COVID-19 patients have increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals and often present with glutathione depletion, which prompts a cytokine storm. NAC, which acts as a precursor of GSH inside cells, has been currently used in many conditions to restore or protect against GSH depletion and has a wide safety margin. In addition, NAC has anti-inflammatory activity independently of its antioxidant activity. CONCLUSIONS Clinical and experimental data suggest that NAC may act on the mechanisms leading to the prothrombotic state observed in severe COVID-19.
Relationship between Lifestyle and Self-Reported Smartphone Addiction in adolescents in the COVID-19 pandemic: A mixed-methods study.
Journal of pediatric nursing. 2022;:82-90
OBJECTIVES 1) To verify the association between Lifestyle and Self-Reported Smartphone Addiction in adolescents; and 2) to analyze the adolescents' perception of this relationship in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD A mixed-methods research study with a sequential and explanatory design, developed with Brazilian adolescents aged between 15 and 18 years old. In the first phase, a quantitative, observational and cross-sectional study was carried out with 479 participants and, in the second, a qualitative approach of an exploratory and descriptive nature, with 16 participants. RESULTS An association was verified between Lifestyle and Self-Reported Smartphone Addiction by adolescents (p < 0.01), with a large size effect (d=0.98). All the domains related to lifestyle were associated with Self-Reported Smartphone Addiction, with greater effects evidenced in the following aspects: high effect for sleep, seat belt, stress and safe sex (d=0.85); and moderate effect for insight (d=0.74) and career (d=0.71). Subsequently, the qualitative analysis resulted in a category that describes how the adolescents understand this relationship in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION More problematic lifestyles were evidenced among the adolescents classified as dependent. In addition to that, it was understood that the COVID-19 pandemic exerted a considerable impact on the lifestyle and behavior established by the adolescents with their smartphones. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PRACTICE Nurses and other health professionals are essential in the promotion of healthy lifestyles and adaptive behavior in smartphone use, especially in the face of this pandemic scenario and, thus, mitigating the harms to the adolescents' health.
Advances in Clinical Cardiology 2021: A Summary of Key Clinical Trials.
Advances in therapy. 2022;(6):2398-2437
INTRODUCTION Over the course of 2021, numerous key clinical trials with valuable contributions to clinical cardiology were published or presented at major international conferences. This review seeks to summarise these trials and reflect on their clinical context. METHODS The authors reviewed clinical trials presented at major cardiology conferences during 2021 including the American College of Cardiology (ACC), European Association for Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EuroPCR), European Society of Cardiology (ESC), Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics (TCT), American Heart Association (AHA), European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI), TVT-The Heart Summit (TVT) and Cardiovascular Research Technologies (CRT). Trials with a broad relevance to the cardiology community and those with potential to change current practice were included. RESULTS A total of 150 key cardiology clinical trials were identified for inclusion. Interventional cardiology data included trials evaluating the use of new generation novel stent technology and new intravascular physiology strategies such as quantitative flow ratio (QFR) to guide revascularisation in stable and unstable coronary artery disease. New trials in acute coronary syndromes focused on shock, out of hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA), the impact of COVID-19 on ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) networks and optimal duration/type of antiplatelet treatment. Structural intervention trials included latest data on transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and mitral, tricuspid and pulmonary valve interventions. Heart failure data included trials with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, sacubitril/valsartan and novel drugs such as mavacamten for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Prevention trials included new data on proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors. In electrophysiology, new data regarding atrial fibrillation (AF) screening and new evidence for rhythm vs. rate control strategies were evaluated. CONCLUSION This article presents a summary of key clinical cardiology trials published and presented during the past year and should be of interest to both practising clinicians and researchers.
Association of fruits, vegetables, and fiber intake with COVID-19 severity and symptoms in hospitalized patients: A cross-sectional study.
Frontiers in nutrition. 2022;:934568
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Fruits and vegetables are rich in fiber and a good source of anti-inflammatory and immune-boosting vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. We investigated the association between fruits, vegetables, and fiber intake and severity of COVID-19 and related symptoms in hospitalized patients. METHODS A total of 250 COVID-19 hospitalized patients aged 18 to 65 years were recruited for this cross-sectional study in Kashan, Iran, between June and September of 2021. Dietary intakes were assessed using an online validated 168-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). COVID-19 severity and symptoms were evaluated using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines. Moreover, we examined COVID-19 symptoms, inflammatory biomarkers, and additional factors. RESULTS The mean age of participants was 44.2 ± 12.1 years, and 46% had severe COVID-19. Patients with higher consumption of fruits (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.14-0.58, P-trend <0.001), vegetables (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.16-0.69, P-trend <0.001), and dietary fiber (OR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.12-0.53, P-trend <0.001) had lower odds of having severe COVID-19. In addition, they had shorter hospitalization and convalescence periods, lower serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and a reduced risk of developing COVID-19 symptoms such as sore throat, nausea and vomiting, dyspnea, myalgia, cough, weakness, fever, and chills. CONCLUSION Higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fiber was inversely linked with COVID-19 severity, clinical symptoms, hospitalization and convalescence duration, and CRP concentrations. The results should be interpreted with caution in light of the limitations, and prospective cohort studies are required to further evaluate these findings.