Effects of long-term social isolation on central, behavioural and metabolic parameters in middle-aged mice.
Behavioural brain research. 2022;:113630
Social isolation gained discussion momentum due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Whereas many studies address the effects of long-term social isolation in post-weaning and adolescence and for periods ranging from 4 to 12 weeks, little is known about the repercussions of adult long-term social isolation in middle age. Thus, our aim was to investigate how long-term social isolation can influence metabolic, behavioural, and central nervous system-related areas in middle-aged mice. Adult male C57Bl/6 mice (4 months-old) were randomly divided into Social (2 cages, n = 5/cage) and Isolated (10 cages, n = 1/cage) housing groups, totalizing 30 weeks of social isolation, which ended concomitantly with the onset of middle age of mice. At the end of the trial, metabolic parameters, short-term memory, anxiety-like behaviour, and physical activity were assessed. Immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus (ΔFosB, BDNF, and 8OHDG) and hypothalamus (ΔFosB) was also performed. The Isolated group showed impaired memory along with a decrease in hippocampal ΔFosB at dentate gyrus and in BDNF at CA3. Food intake was also affected, but the direction depended on how it was measured in the Social group (individually or in the group) with no alteration in ΔFosB at the hypothalamus. Physical activity parameters increased with chronic isolation, but in the light cycle (inactive phase), with some evidence of anxiety-like behaviour. Future studies should better explore the timepoint at which the alterations found begin. In conclusion, long-term social isolation in adult mice contributes to alterations in feeding, physical activity pattern, and anxiety-like behaviour. Moreover, short-term memory deficit was associated with lower levels of hippocampal ΔFosB and BDNF in middle age.
Prenatal exposure to gestational diabetes is associated with anxiety and physical inactivity in children during COVID-19.
Clinical obesity. 2021;(1):e12422
BACKGROUND The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with adverse child mental health outcomes and reduced physical activity. Moreover, prenatal exposure to gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with increased risk for adverse psychological outcomes in children. OBJECTIVES Assess prenatal exposure to GDM on anxiety levels and physical activity in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS Sixty-five children age 9 to 15 reported their physical activity and anxiety levels using the 24-hours physical activity recall and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children via phone or video meetings. Prenatal exposure to GDM was obtained from maternal electronic medical records. RESULTS The 38 GDM-exposed children reported significantly higher anxiety levels and were less likely to engage in any vigorous physical activity (VPA) (5% vs 30%) compared to the 27 GDM-unexposed children. Lower levels of physical activity were significantly associated with higher levels of anxiety. Less engagement in VPA explained 75% of the association between GDM exposure and anxiety levels. CONCLUSIONS Engaging in physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic may be beneficial for reducing anxiety, particularly amongst GDM-exposed children.
COVID-19 pandemic: Effects of national lockdown on the state of health of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Moroccan population.
Primary care diabetes. 2021;(5):772-777
BACKGROUND The complete lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic had imposed a new behavior and lifestyle especially in terms of diet, physical activity, and the management of patients with chronic diseases. AIM: The present study aimed to analyze the impact of lockdown on the monitoring and care of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in a Moroccan population from the Doukkala region. SUBJECTS AND METHODS We conducted a retrospective observational study including 121 T2DM patients recruited from the Diabetes Diagnosis and Treatment Center of El Jadida city. Demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical data of our T2DM patients were recorded before and after lockdown that lasted 82 days. All patients have signed an informed consent after being informed about the purely scientific aims of the study. RESULTS Our sample involved 84 women and 37 men with an age average of 57.31 ± 0.91 years. The effects of lockdown were more marked in women than in men: women showed a significant tendency to gain weight (from 78.13 ± 1.36 kg to 81.80 ± 1.45 kg; p-value < 0.000), that impacted the body mass index (p-value < 0.000); they also showed significant increases in HbA1c values (p-value = 0.001), significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (p-value = 0.0302) and a surprising increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p-value = 0.0132). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the women sample increased from 46.4% to 54.8% after the lockdown. In men, the negative effect of lockdown was observed only in HbA1c that values increased significantly from 8.66 ± 0.21% to 9.51 ± 0.25% (p-value = 0.0127). CONCLUSION Our results reveal that lockdown had impacted negatively the health status of T2DM patients, especially women. We suggest an urgent development of programs aiming to improve the hygiene of life and to reduce the impact of future crises on patients suffering chronic diseases such as T2DM.
Diabetic ketoacidosis precipitated by atypical coronavirus disease in a newly diagnosed diabetic girl.
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences. 2021;(4):628-631
Viral infections have a well-known influence on the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). There is scant data about the impact of COVID-19 T1DM and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) on paediatric patients. This case presents a newly diagnosed paediatric patient with T1DM and DKA who was found to have SARS-CoV-2 without any respiratory symptoms. A 7-year-old girl presented with a history of polydipsia, polyuria, and weight loss. This presentation was complicated by a 2-day history of fatigue and vomiting. Investigations into the patient's condition confirmed T1DM with DKA. Following the infection control protocol, she underwent screening for SARS-CoV-2, which yielded a positive result. During her hospital stay, she did not develop fever or respiratory symptoms. The ketoacidosis was treated without any complications. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 may trigger the onset of T1DM and may precipitate the occurrence of DKA in paediatric diabetic patients, even in the absence of respiratory symptoms.
Effect of home-based prehabilitation in an enhanced recovery after surgery program for patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. 2021;(12):7785-7791
BACKGROUND Surgery remains the first curative treatment for colorectal cancer. Prehabilitation seems to attenuate the loss of lean mass in the early postoperative period. However, its long-term role has not been studied. Lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic has forced to carry out the prehabilitation program at home. This study aimed to assess the effect of home prehabilitation on body composition, complications, and hospital stay in patients undergoing oncological colorectal surgery. METHODS A prospective and randomized clinical study was conducted in 20 patients operated of colorectal cancer during COVID-19 lockdown (13 March to 21 June 2020) in a single university clinical hospital. Patients were randomized into two study groups (10 per group): prehabilitation vs standard care. Changes in lean mass and fat mass at 45 and 90 days after surgery were measured using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. RESULTS Prehabilitation managed to reduce hospital stay (4.8 vs 7.2 days, p = 0.052) and postoperative complications (20% vs 50%, p = 0.16). Forty-five days after surgery, the loss of lean mass decreased (1.7% vs 7.1%, p = 0.17). These differences in lean mass were attenuated at 90 days; however, the standard care group increased considerably their fat mass compared to the prehabilitation group (+ 8.72% vs - 8.16%). CONCLUSIONS Home prehabilitation has proven its effectiveness, achieving an attenuation of lean mass loss in the early postoperative period and a lower gain in fat mass in the late postoperative period. In addition, it has managed to reduce hospital stays and postoperative complications. REGISTRATION NUMBER This article is part of an ongoing, randomized, and controlled clinical trial approved by the ethics committee of our hospital and registered in ClinicalTrials.gov in August 2018 with registration number NCT03618329.
COVID-19 Patient Returned to Work after Long Hospitalization and Follow-up: A Case Report.
Progress in rehabilitation medicine. 2021;:20210025
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes severe respiratory dysfunction and post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), which can significantly affect the return to work after discharge from the hospital. This report describes the first case of a patient with severe COVID-19 at our institution during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (February to June 2020) who returned to work following rehabilitation management. Case: A 48-year-old female nurse was admitted with COVID-19 and underwent mechanical ventilation (MV). Respiratory and anti-gravity training was conducted as physical therapy; however, the patient developed PICS, muscle weakness, delirium, and psychological problems. After the withdrawal of MV, muscle strengthening activities, activities of daily living (ADL) training, family visits, and occupational and speech therapy were started. On day 60 post-admission, the patient was able to perform ADL independently and was discharged; however, she continued to experience shortness of breath during exertion. Post-discharge, follow-up assessments for symptoms, respiratory function, and exercise capacity were continued. On day 130, she returned to work as a nurse. Discussion: The PICS noted during hospitalization in this patient improved, but at discharge, the patient had difficulty completing the practical tasks involved in a nurse's workload. Follow-up assessments of symptoms, respiratory function, and exercise capacity after discharge helped to determine whether the patient could return to work.
EMG breakpoints for detecting anaerobic threshold and respiratory compensation point in recovered COVID-19 patients.
Journal of electromyography and kinesiology : official journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology. 2021;:102567
INTRODUCTION A huge number of COVID-19 patients should be referred to rehabilitation programmes. Individualizing the exercise intensity by metabolic response provide good physiological results. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of EMG as a non-invasive determinant of the anaerobic threshold and respiratory compensation point, for more precise exercise intensity prescription. METHODS An observational cross-sectional study with 66 recovered COVID-19 patients was carried out. The patients underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test with simultaneous assessment of muscle electromyography in vastus lateralis. EMG breakpoints were analyzed during the ramp-up protocol. The first and second EMG breakpoints were used for anaerobic threshold and respiratory compensation point determination. RESULTS EMG and gas exchange analysis presented strong correlation in anaerobic threshold (r = 0.97, p < 0.0001) and respiratory compensation point detection (r = 0.99, p < 0.0001) detection. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a bias = -4.7 W (SD = 6.2 W, limits of agreement = -16.9 to 7.6) for anaerobic threshold detection in EMG compared to gas exchange analysis. In respiratory compensation point detection, Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a bias = -2.1 W (SD = 4.5 W, limits of agreement = -10.9 to 6.6) in EMG compared to gas exchange analysis. EMG demonstrated a small effect size compared to gas exchange analysis in oxygen uptake and power output at anaerobic threshold and respiratory compensation point detection. CONCLUSIONS EMG analysis detects anaerobic threshold and respiratory compensation point without clinical significant difference than gas exchange analysis (gold standard method) in recovered COVID-19 patients.
Euglycaemic ketoacidosis in pregnant women with COVID-19: two case reports.
BMC pregnancy and childbirth. 2021;(1):427
BACKGROUND Euglycaemic ketoacidosis (EKA) is an infrequent but serious condition which usually follows a period of starvation, severe vomiting or illness in individuals with or without diabetes. Ketoacidosis is associated with materno-fetal morbidity and mortality necessitating prompt diagnosis and management. Physiological increases in insulin resistance render pregnancy a diabetogenic state with increased susceptibility to ketosis. COVID-19 is associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes and is an independent risk factor for ketoacidosis in normoglycaemic individuals. CASE PRESENTATIONS We describe two cases of SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women presenting with normoglycaemic metabolic ketoacidosis. Both cases were associated with maternal and fetal compromise, requiring aggressive fluid and insulin resuscitation and early delivery. CONCLUSION We discuss possible physiology and propose a management strategy for euglycaemic ketoacidosis in pregnancy.
The effects of a physical and cognitive training intervention vs. physical training alone on older adults' physical activity: A randomized controlled trial with extended follow-up during COVID-19.
PloS one. 2021;(10):e0258559
BACKGROUND Executive functions underlie self-regulation and are thus important for physical activity and adaptation to new situations. The aim was to investigate, if yearlong physical and cognitive training (PTCT) had greater effects on physical activity among older adults than physical training (PT) alone, and if executive functions predicted physical activity at baseline, after six (6m) and twelve months (12m) of the interventions, one-year post-intervention follow-up and an extended follow-up during COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS Data from a single-blinded, parallel-group randomized controlled trial (PASSWORD-study, ISRCTN52388040) were utilized. Participants were 70-85 years old community-dwelling men and women from Jyväskylä, Finland. PT (n = 159) included supervised resistance, walking and balance training, home-exercises and self-administered moderate activity. PTCT (n = 155) included PT and cognitive training targeting executive functions on a computer program. Physical activity was assessed with a one-item, seven-scale question. Executive functions were assessed with color-word Stroop, Trail Making Test (TMT) B-A and Letter Fluency. Changes in physical activity were modeled with multinomial logistic models and the impact of executive functions on physical activity with latent change score models. RESULTS No significant group-by-time interaction was observed for physical activity (p>0.1). The subjects were likely to select an activity category higher than baseline throughout the study (pooled data: B = 0.720-1.614, p<0.001-0.046). Higher baseline Stroop predicted higher physical activity through all subsequent time-points (pooled data: B = 0.011-0.013, p = 0.015-0.030). Higher baseline TMT B-A predicted higher physical activity at 6m (pooled data: B = 0.007, p = 0.006) and during COVID-19 (B = 0.005, p = 0.030). In the PT group, higher baseline Letter Fluency predicted higher physical activity at 12m (B = -0.028, p = 0.030) and follow-up (B = -0.042, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Cognitive training did not have additive effects over physical training alone on physical activity, but multicomponent training and higher executive function at baseline may support adaptation to and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle among older adults.
COVID-19, HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis, Disseminated Tuberculosis and Acute Ischaemic Stroke: A Fatal Foursome.
Infection and drug resistance. 2021;:4167-4171
Background: Several viral, bacterial and fungal co-infections have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality among patients with COVID-19. We report a fatal case of severe COVID-19 pneumonia in a patient with a recent diagnosis of advanced HIV disease complicated by cryptococcal meningitis, disseminated tuberculosis and acute ischemic stroke. Case Presentation: A 37-year-old Ugandan woman was diagnosed with HIV infection 8 days prior to her referral to our center. She was antiretroviral naïve. Her chief complaints were worsening cough, difficulty in breathing, fever and altered mental status for 3 days with a background of a 1-month history of coughing with associated drenching night sweats and weight loss. The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 of her nasopharyngeal swab sample was positive. Chest radiograph demonstrated military pattern involvement of both lungs. The serum and cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal antigen tests were positive. Urine lipoarabinomannan and sputum GeneXpert were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Computed tomography of the brain showed a large acute ischemic infarct in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery. Regardless of the initiation of treatment, that is, fluconazole 1200 mg once daily, enoxaparin 60 mg, intravenous (IV) dexamethasone 6 mg once daily, oral fluconazole 1200 mg once daily, IV piperacillin/tazobactam 4.5 g three times daily and oxygen therapy, the patient passed on within 36 hours of admission. Conclusion: Co-infections worsen COVID-19 outcomes.