Inverse Relationship of Maximal Exercise Capacity to Hospitalization Secondary to Coronavirus Disease 2019.
Mayo Clinic proceedings. 2021;(1):32-39
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between maximal exercise capacity measured before severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and hospitalization due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS We identified patients (≥18 years) who completed a clinically indicated exercise stress test between January 1, 2016, and February 29, 2020, and had a test for SARS-CoV-2 (ie, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test) between February 29, 2020, and May 30, 2020. Maximal exercise capacity was quantified in metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the likelihood that hospitalization secondary to COVID-19 is related to peak METs, with adjustment for 13 covariates previously identified as associated with higher risk for severe illness from COVID-19. RESULTS We identified 246 patients (age, 59±12 years; 42% male; 75% black race) who had an exercise test and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among these, 89 (36%) were hospitalized. Peak METs were significantly lower (P<.001) among patients who were hospitalized (6.7±2.8) compared with those not hospitalized (8.0±2.4). Peak METs were inversely associated with the likelihood of hospitalization in unadjusted (odds ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.92) and adjusted models (odds ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.76-0.99). CONCLUSION Maximal exercise capacity is independently and inversely associated with the likelihood of hospitalization due to COVID-19. These data further support the important relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and health outcomes. Future studies are needed to determine whether improving maximal exercise capacity is associated with lower risk of complications due to viral infections, such as COVID-19.
Nutritional status assessment in patients with Covid-19 after discharge from the intensive care unit.
Clinical nutrition ESPEN. 2021;:423-428
INTRODUCTION The nutritional diagnosis and early nutritional management of COVID-19 patients must be integrated into the overall therapeutic strategy. The aim of our study is to assess the nutritional status of patients with COVID-19 after a stay in intensive care, to describe the prevalence of undernutrition, to determine the factors influencing undernutrition and to describe the nutritional management. TOOLS AND METHODS This is a descriptive observational study of adult patients admitted to the endocrinology service for additional care after a stay in intensive care during the period from April 17, 2020 to May 26, 2020. The assessment tool used was the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). RESULTS Our study included 41 patients; the average age of the patients was 55 years, 51.2% had a severe or critical form of COVID-19, 75.6% stayed in intensive care, 12.2% had a loss of autonomy. The average BMI was 25.2 kg/m2 (17-42 kg/m2), 42.5% were overweight, 61% had weight loss, 26.2% had weight loss greater than 10%, 14.6% of our patients were undernourished, 65.9% were at risk of undernutrition, 19.5% had hypoalbuminemia, 17.1% had hypoprotidemia, 19.5% hypocalcemia, 34.1% anemia, 12.2% hypomagnesemia and 51.2% had a deficiency in vitamin D. A positive correlation was found between poor nutritional status and a longer stay in intensive care (>5 days) (p = 0.011) and lymphopenia (p = 0,02). CONCLUSION Despite a personalized diet, 14.6% of patients presented undernutrition. Particular attention should be paid to patients with a long stay in intensive care.
The Impact of Poor Nutrient Intakes and Food Insecurity on the Psychological Distress among Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic.
This study aimed to investigate the impact of food insecurity and poor nutrient intake on the psychological health of middle-aged and older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. A sub-sample of 535 individuals aged 52 years and above, from the earlier cohort and interventional studies (n = 4) from four selected states in Peninsular Malaysia, were recruited during the COVID-19 outbreak (April to June 2020). Telephone interviews were conducted by trained interviewers with a health sciences background to obtain participants' information on health status, physical activity, food security, and psychological health (General Health Questionnaire-12; normal and psychological distress). Univariate analyses were performed for each variable, followed by a logistic regression analysis using SPSS Statistics version 25.0. Results revealed food insecurity (OR = 17.06, 95% CI: 8.24-35.32, p < 0.001), low protein (OR = 0.981, 95% CI: 0.965-0.998, p < 0.05), and fiber intakes (OR = 0.822, 95% CI: 0.695-0.972, p < 0.05) were found to be significant factors associated with the psychological distress group after adjusting for confounding factors. The findings suggested that food insecurity and insufficiencies of protein and fiber intakes heightened the psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Optimal nutrition is vital to ensure the physical and psychological health of the older population, specifically during the current pandemic.
Prenatal exposure to gestational diabetes is associated with anxiety and physical inactivity in children during COVID-19.
Clinical obesity. 2021;(1):e12422
BACKGROUND The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with adverse child mental health outcomes and reduced physical activity. Moreover, prenatal exposure to gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with increased risk for adverse psychological outcomes in children. OBJECTIVES Assess prenatal exposure to GDM on anxiety levels and physical activity in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS Sixty-five children age 9 to 15 reported their physical activity and anxiety levels using the 24-hours physical activity recall and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children via phone or video meetings. Prenatal exposure to GDM was obtained from maternal electronic medical records. RESULTS The 38 GDM-exposed children reported significantly higher anxiety levels and were less likely to engage in any vigorous physical activity (VPA) (5% vs 30%) compared to the 27 GDM-unexposed children. Lower levels of physical activity were significantly associated with higher levels of anxiety. Less engagement in VPA explained 75% of the association between GDM exposure and anxiety levels. CONCLUSIONS Engaging in physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic may be beneficial for reducing anxiety, particularly amongst GDM-exposed children.
Impact of lockdown for COVID-19 pandemic in Indian children and youth with type 1 diabetes from different socio-economic classes.
Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM. 2021;(2):217-223
OBJECTIVES In March 2020, lockdown was imposed in India to combat spread of Coronavirus, which was extended till 31st May. Implementation of lockdown and limited outdoor activities resulted in changes in routines of children with diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of lockdown on glycemic control, weight and body mass index (BMI) patterns of children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) from different socio-economic (SE) classes. METHODS This observational study included 77 children and youth (5-20 years) with T1DM having disease duration of ≥6 months. Demographic data and investigations were recorded at two time points (post lockdown when the children came for follow up, pre lockdown data from medical records). RESULTS Glycemic control improved (pre lockdown HbA1C 79.4±19.2 vs. post lockdown Hba1C 74.5±16.9 mmol/mol, p<0.05) and there was weight gain post lockdown (pre lockdown weight z-score -0.4±0.8 vs. post lockdown weight z-score -0.2±0.8, p<0.05) without any significant change in BMI and insulin requirements. Improved glycemic was seen in the lower SE group control post lockdown (p<0.05), whereas in higher SE group, it remained unchanged. Children whose parents were at home during lockdown showed an improved glycemic control (p<0.05) as compared to children whose parents continued to work during lockdown (p>0.01). CONCLUSIONS During coronavirus lockdown, glycemic control was adequately maintained in children with T1DM, highlighting importance of stronger family support system leading to more steady daily routine.
Bird Fancier's Lung Diagnosis in Times of COVID-19.
Archivos de bronconeumologia. 2021;:90-91
Thyroid Function Before, During, and After COVID-19.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2021;(2):e803-e811
CONTEXT The effects of COVID-19 on the thyroid axis remain uncertain. Recent evidence has been conflicting, with both thyrotoxicosis and suppression of thyroid function reported. OBJECTIVE We aimed to detail the acute effects of COVID-19 on thyroid function and determine if these effects persisted on recovery from COVID-19. DESIGN A cohort observational study was conducted. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING Adult patients admitted to Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust, London, UK, with suspected COVID-19 between March 9 to April 22, 2020, were included, excluding those with preexisting thyroid disease and those missing either free thyroxine (FT4) or thyrotropin (TSH) measurements. Of 456 patients, 334 had COVID-19 and 122 did not. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES TSH and FT4 measurements were recorded at admission, and where available, in 2019 and at COVID-19 follow-up. RESULTS Most patients (86.6%) presenting with COVID-19 were euthyroid, with none presenting with overt thyrotoxicosis. Patients with COVID-19 had a lower admission TSH and FT4 compared to those without COVID-19. In the COVID-19 patients with matching baseline thyroid function tests from 2019 (n = 185 for TSH and 104 for FT4), TSH and FT4 both were reduced at admission compared to baseline. In a complete case analysis of COVID-19 patients with TSH measurements at follow-up, admission, and baseline (n = 55), TSH was seen to recover to baseline at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Most patients with COVID-19 present with euthyroidism. We observed mild reductions in TSH and FT4 in keeping with a nonthyroidal illness syndrome. Furthermore, in survivors of COVID-19, thyroid function tests at follow-up returned to baseline.
Relationships between changes in self-reported physical activity, sedentary behaviour and health during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in France and Switzerland.
Journal of sports sciences. 2021;(6):699-704
To assess whether changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviour during the COVID-19 lockdown are associated with changes in mental and physical health. Observational longitudinal study. Participants living in France or Switzerland responded to online questionnaires measuring physical activity, physical and mental health, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Paired sample t-tests were used to assess differences in physical activity and sedentary behaviour before and during lockdown. Multiple linear regressions were used to investigate associations between changes in physical activity and changes in mental and physical health during lockdown. 267 (wave1) and 110 participants (wave2; 2 weeks later) were recruited. Lockdown resulted in higher time spent in walking and moderate physical activity (~10min/day) and in sedentary behaviour (~75min/day), compared to pre COVID-19. Increased physical activity during leisure time from week 2 to week 4 of lockdown was associated with improved physical health (β=.24, p=.002). Additionally, an increase in sedentary behaviour during leisure time was associated with poorer physical health (β=-.35, p=.002), mental health (β=-.25, p=.003), and subjective vitality (β=-.30, p=.004). Ensuring sufficient levels of physical activity and reducing sedentary time can play a vital role in helping people to cope with a major stressful event, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
Changes in Menopausal Risk Factors in Early Postmenopausal Osteopenic Women After 13 Months of High-Intensity Exercise: The Randomized Controlled ACTLIFE-RCT.
Clinical interventions in aging. 2021;:83-96
The menopausal transition is a critical period in women's lives. Exercise might be the most promising non-pharmaceutic intervention to address the large variety of risk factors related to the pronounced estradiol decline during peri- and early-postmenopause. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an 18-month multipurpose exercise program on risk factors and symptoms related to the menopausal transition. Fifty-four women 1-5 years postmenopause with osteopenia or osteoporosis were randomly assigned 1) to a high impact weight-bearing/high-intensity/velocity resistance training group (EG: n=27) exercising three times a week or 2) to an attendance control group (CG: n=27) that performed low-intensity exercise once a week. Both groups were supplemented with cholecalciferol and calcium. The primary study endpoint was bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (LS) and total hip, secondary outcomes were lean body mass (LBM), total and abdominal body percentage, metabolic syndrome Z-Score (MetS-Z), menopausal symptoms and muscle strength and power. Due to COVID-19, the study was stopped after 13 months. We observed significant effects for BMD-LS (EG: 0.002±.018 versus CG: -.009±0.018 mg/cm2, p=0.027) but not for BMD total hip (EG: -0.01±.016 versus CG: -.009±0.020 mg/cm2, p=0.129). LBM improved significantly in the EG and decreased in the CG (0.39±1.08 vs -0.37±1.34 kg, p=0.026). Total and abdominal body fat improved significantly in the EG and was maintained in the CG (-1.44±1.49 vs -0.02±1.55 kg, p=0.002 and -1.50±2.33 vs 0.08±2.07 kg, p=0.011). Significant effects in favor of the EG were also determined for menopausal symptoms (p=0.029), hip/leg extension strength (p<0.001) and power (p<0.001). However, changes of the MetS-Z did not differ significantly (p=0.149) between EG and CG. In summary, with minor exceptions, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a multipurpose exercise protocol dedicated to early-postmenopausal women on various risk factors and complaints related to the menopausal transition.
Tai Chi for the elderly patients with COVID-19 in recovery period: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.
BACKGROUND The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has caused a great impact in many countries. Older people are more susceptible to the virus than other people. As a good health exercise suitable for the elderly, Tai Chi has a positive impact on heart function, blood pressure, lung function, immunity, etc. It can enhance cardiopulmonary function, increase the elasticity of blood vessels, and improve the body's self-regulation function. For the elder patients with COVID-19, Tai Chi has outstanding merits. METHODS We will search PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, Wanfang Database, Clinical Trials and Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. The complete process will include study selection, data extraction, risk of bias assessment and meta-analyses. Endnote X9.3 will be used to manage data screening. The statistical analysis will be completed by Stata/SE 15.1 software. RESULTS This proposed study will evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Tai Chi for the improvement of psychological pressure, cardiopulmonary function, and immunity in elderly COVID-19 patients during the recovery period. CONCLUSION The conclusion of this study will provide evidence to prove the safety and effectiveness of Tai Chi on elderly COVID-19 patients during the recovery period. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION This protocol will not evaluate individual patient information or infringe patient rights and therefore does not require ethical approval. REGISTRATION PEROSPERO CRD42020220128.