Egg Consumption in U.S. Children is Associated with Greater Daily Nutrient Intakes, including Protein, Lutein + Zeaxanthin, Choline, α-Linolenic Acid, and Docosahexanoic Acid.
Plain language summary
Dietary guidelines recommend children and adolescents consume nutrient-dense foods to promote growth and development, and recently eggs have been included in these recommendations. At present, there are no studies in children and adolescents that have examined nutrient-related associations of egg consumption. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate egg consumption and nutrient intakes, diet quality and growth outcomes relative to non-egg consumers. Using cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), data from 3,299 egg consumers and 17,030 non-egg consumers aged 2-18 was examined. Compared with non-egg consumption, egg consumption was associated with elevated intake of protein, healthy fats, antioxidants and various vitamins and minerals, and lower intake of sugar. There were several shortfall nutrients associated with egg consumption including fibre, iron, and folate. No associations were found when examining diet quality and growth-relate measures. This analysis demonstrated several nutrient-related benefits to support the continued inclusion of eggs in the dietary patterns of children and adolescents. Based on these results, the authors conclude this study illustrates an opportunity to communicate the benefits linked with egg consumption to individuals that influence children and adolescents.
undefined: Dietary pattern recommendations include consuming a variety of nutrient-dense foods in children and adolescents to promote optimal growth and development. The current study investigated associations with egg consumption and nutrient intakes, diet quality, and growth outcomes relative to non-egg consumers. The analysis used data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2012 in children and adolescents aged 2-18 years ( = 3,299, egg consumers; = 17,030, egg non-consumers). Daily energy and nutrient intakes were adjusted for the complex sample design of NHANES using appropriate weights. Consuming eggs was associated with increased daily energy intake relative to non-egg consumption. Children and adolescents consuming eggs had elevated daily intake of protein, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and total fat, α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), choline, lutein + zeaxanthin, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus, and selenium. Egg consumers had greater consumption, sodium, saturated fat, with reduced total and added sugar versus egg non-consumers. The analysis also showed that egg consumption was linked with lower intake of dietary folate, iron, and niacin. No associations were determined when examining diet quality and growth-related measures. A sub-analysis considering socioeconomic status showed that egg consumption was positively related with daily lutein + zeaxanthin and DHA intake. The current analysis demonstrated several nutrient-related benefits to support the continued inclusion of eggs in the dietary patterns of children and adolescents.
Dietary Cholesterol and the Lack of Evidence in Cardiovascular Disease.
Plain language summary
For years, dietary cholesterol was implicated in increasing blood cholesterol levels, therefore contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While it is known that saturated fatty acids and trans-fatty acids increase CVD risk, the evidence of dietary cholesterol increasing this risk remains inconclusive. This review summarises the current evidence regarding dietary cholesterol, blood cholesterol, saturated fatty acids and the risk of CVD. This review found that the current literature does not support the notion that dietary cholesterol increases the risk of heart disease in healthy individuals. The fact that dietary cholesterol is common in foods that are high in saturated fats may have contributed to the hypothesis that dietary cholesterol increases the risk of CVD. Based on these results, the author suggests individuals incorporate nutrient-dense, calorie controlled, balanced meals in eating patterns.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. For years, dietary cholesterol was implicated in increasing blood cholesterol levels leading to the elevated risk of CVD. To date, extensive research did not show evidence to support a role of dietary cholesterol in the development of CVD. As a result, the 2015⁻2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans removed the recommendations of restricting dietary cholesterol to 300 mg/day. This review summarizes the current literature regarding dietary cholesterol intake and CVD. It is worth noting that most foods that are rich in cholesterol are also high in saturated fatty acids and thus may increase the risk of CVD due to the saturated fatty acid content. The exceptions are eggs and shrimp. Considering that eggs are affordable and nutrient-dense food items, containing high-quality protein with minimal saturated fatty acids (1.56 gm/egg) and are rich in several micronutrients including vitamins and minerals, it would be worthwhile to include eggs in moderation as a part of a healthy eating pattern. This recommendation is particularly relevant when individual’s intakes of nutrients are suboptimal, or with limited income and food access, and to help ensure dietary intake of sufficient nutrients in growing children and older adults.
Dietary and Policy Priorities for Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Obesity: A Comprehensive Review.
Plain language summary
Diet-related cardiometabolic conditions, such as heart disease and diabetes, pose a significant health and economic burden across the world. In recent years, scientific advances and research have generated enormous insights, yet there remain many controversies and unanswered questions. This extensive review summarizes recent evidence of key-dietary components and their impact on cardiometabolic health. Amongst the topics covered are dietary patterns, food quality and processing, genetics, personalized nutrition, supplements, functional foods and the existing knowledge on selected food groups such as carbohydrates, meat and fats alongside relevant vitamins, minerals and plant compounds. The author highlights how an oversimplified concept of nutrition from previous decades, has led to an array of conflicting advice and undermined the nuanced and complex impact that diet and nutrition can have on the body. Thus in light of the evidence, food-based interventions and dietary patterns are suggested as favourable, with less focus on dietary components in isolation. Throughout the paper, the need for adjunct support to facilitate sustainable health-promoting behaviour changes is recognized. Calling for additional measures to address behaviour change, health systems reforms, targeting socioeconomic inequalities, employing novel technologies, and adequate policymaking. This overview of recent evidence yields a comprehensive source of information, worthwhile reviewing when designing personalised diet plans in support of cardiometabolic health.
Suboptimal nutrition is a leading cause of poor health. Nutrition and policy science have advanced rapidly, creating confusion yet also providing powerful opportunities to reduce the adverse health and economic impacts of poor diets. This review considers the history, new evidence, controversies, and corresponding lessons for modern dietary and policy priorities for cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Major identified themes include the importance of evaluating the full diversity of diet-related risk pathways, not only blood lipids or obesity; focusing on foods and overall diet patterns, rather than single isolated nutrients; recognizing the complex influences of different foods on long-term weight regulation, rather than simply counting calories; and characterizing and implementing evidence-based strategies, including policy approaches, for lifestyle change. Evidence-informed dietary priorities include increased fruits, nonstarchy vegetables, nuts, legumes, fish, vegetable oils, yogurt, and minimally processed whole grains; and fewer red meats, processed (eg, sodium-preserved) meats, and foods rich in refined grains, starch, added sugars, salt, and trans fat. More investigation is needed on the cardiometabolic effects of phenolics, dairy fat, probiotics, fermentation, coffee, tea, cocoa, eggs, specific vegetable and tropical oils, vitamin D, individual fatty acids, and diet-microbiome interactions. Little evidence to date supports the cardiometabolic relevance of other popular priorities: eg, local, organic, grass-fed, farmed/wild, or non-genetically modified. Evidence-based personalized nutrition appears to depend more on nongenetic characteristics (eg, physical activity, abdominal adiposity, gender, socioeconomic status, culture) than genetic factors. Food choices must be strongly supported by clinical behavior change efforts, health systems reforms, novel technologies, and robust policy strategies targeting economic incentives, schools and workplaces, neighborhood environments, and the food system. Scientific advances provide crucial new insights on optimal targets and best practices to reduce the burdens of diet-related cardiometabolic diseases.