Vasculitis changes in COVID-19 survivors with persistent symptoms: an [18F]FDG-PET/CT study.
European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging. 2021;48(5):1460-1466
Plain language summary
The SARS-CoV-2 infection manifests with a broad spectrum of clinical patterns ranging from minimally or asymptomatic cases to mild illness, to severe infection, to critical disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the radiopharmaceutical, 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG), was able to demonstrate a persistent inflammatory process in the vascular epithelium or in any other site. The study included Covid-19 patients who recovered but complained of unexplained persisting symptoms for more than 30 days during the follow-up visits. The patients where divided into two groups; the long Covid and control group. Results indicate that although the total vascular score was similar in the two groups, the target-to-blood pool ratio was significantly higher in three vascular regions (thoracic aorta, right iliac artery, and femoral arteries) in the long Covid than in controls. Authors conclude that their findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 induces vascular inflammation, which may be responsible for persisting symptoms.
PURPOSE Several patients experience unexplained persistent symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 recovering. We aimed at evaluating if 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) was able to demonstrate a persistent inflammatory process. METHODS Recovered adult COVID-19 patients, who complained unexplained persisting symptoms for more than 30 days during the follow-up visits, were invited to participate in the study. Patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were imaged by [18F]FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([18F]FDG-PET/CT). Whole-body [18F]FDG-PET/CT, performed according to good clinical practice, was qualitatively (comparison with background/liver) and semi-quantitatively (target-to-blood pool ratio calculated as average SUVmax artery/average SUVmean inferior vena cava) analyzed. Negative follow-up [18F]FDG-PET/CT images of oncologic patients matched for age/sex served as controls. Mann-Whitney test was used to test differences between groups. SPSS version 26 was used for analyses. RESULTS Ten recovered SARS-CoV-2 patients (seven male and three females, median age 52 years, range 46-80) with persisting symptoms were enrolled in the study. Common findings at visual analysis were increased [18F]FDG uptake in bone marrow and blood vessels (8/10 and 6/10 cases, respectively). [18F]FDG uptake in bone marrow did not differ between cases and controls (p = 0.16). The total vascular score was similar in the two groups (p = 0.95). The target-to-blood pool ratio resulted higher in recovered SARS-CoV-2 patients than in controls. CONCLUSION Although the total vascular score was similar in the two groups, the target-to-blood pool ratio was significantly higher in three vascular regions (thoracic aorta, right iliac artery, and femoral arteries) in the recovered COVID-19 cohort than in controls, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 induces vascular inflammation, which may be responsible for persisting symptoms.
Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Hospitalized and Critically Ill Children and Adolescents with Coronavirus Disease 2019 at a Tertiary Care Medical Center in New York City.
The Journal of pediatrics. 2020;223:14-19.e2
Plain language summary
Epidemiologic studies have consistently demonstrated that children are at lower risk of developing severe symptoms or critical illness compared with adults. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical profiles and risk factors for critical illness in hospitalised children and adolescents with COVID-19. The study is a retrospective review of 67 children aged between 1 month to 21 years with COVID-19 from a single tertiary care children’s hospital. Out of the 44 children who tested positive, 33 (72%) were admitted to the general paediatric medical unit and 13 (28%) to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Results showed that patients admitted to the PICU were noted to have more severe symptoms and markers of inflammatory response. The most common symptoms at admission were cough (63%) and fever (60.9%). Of the 13 patients in the PICU, 8 (61.5%) were discharged home, and 4 (30.7%) patients remain hospitalized on ventilatory support at day 14. Authors conclude that their study showed a higher rate of PICU admission per hospitalization (28.2%), which they believe may be a reflection of a variety of social determinants that influence health outcomes.
OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical profiles and risk factors for critical illness in hospitalized children and adolescents with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). STUDY DESIGN Children 1 month to 21 years of age with COVID-19 from a single tertiary care children's hospital between March 15 and April 13, 2020 were included. Demographic and clinical data were collected. RESULTS In total, 67 children tested positive for COVID-19; 21 (31.3%) were managed as outpatients. Of 46 admitted patients, 33 (72%) were admitted to the general pediatric medical unit and 13 (28%) to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Obesity and asthma were highly prevalent but not significantly associated with PICU admission (P = .99). Admission to the PICU was significantly associated with higher C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and pro-B type natriuretic peptide levels and platelet counts (P < .05 for all). Patients in the PICU were more likely to require high-flow nasal cannula (P = .0001) and were more likely to have received Remdesivir through compassionate release (P < .05). Severe sepsis and septic shock syndromes were observed in 7 (53.8%) patients in the PICU. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was observed in 10 (77%) PICU patients, 6 of whom (46.2%) required invasive mechanical ventilation for a median of 9 days. Of the 13 patients in the PICU, 8 (61.5%) were discharged home, and 4 (30.7%) patients remain hospitalized on ventilatory support at day 14. One patient died after withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy because of metastatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS We describe a higher than previously recognized rate of severe disease requiring PICU admission in pediatric patients admitted to the hospital with COVID-19.
Unusual Early Recovery of a Critical COVID-19 Patient After Administration of Intravenous Vitamin C.
The American journal of case reports. 2020;21:e925521
Plain language summary
Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) continues to spread globally and to date there are no proven treatments. Current treatment focuses on the management of the associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). There are many studies demonstrating that in severe sepsis and ARDS; Vitamin C reduces systemic inflammation, prevents lung damage, reduces the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) and the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay in patients. This is a case report where a critically ill patient received high-dose Vitamin C intravenous (IV) infusions and recovered. A 74 year-old woman with Covid-19, developed ARDS and septic shock. Usual medications were given. She needed MV and deteriorated rapidly. On Day 7 she was administered Vitamin C (11g per 24 hours as a continuous IV infusion). Her clinical condition improved slowly after this. In this case, high dose IV Vitamin C was associated with fewer days on mechanical intervention, a shorter ICU stay and earlier recovery. These results show the importance of further investigation of IV Vitamin C to assess its efficacy in critically ill Covid-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation and ICU care.
BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread, with confirmed cases now in more than 200 countries. Thus far there are no proven therapeutic options to treat COVID-19. We report a case of COVID-19 with acute respiratory distress syndrome who was treated with high-dose vitamin C infusion and was the first case to have early recovery from the disease at our institute. CASE REPORT A 74-year-old woman with no recent sick contacts or travel history presented with fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Her vital signs were normal except for oxygen saturation of 87% and bilateral rhonchi on lung auscultation. Chest radiography revealed air space opacity in the right upper lobe, suspicious for pneumonia. A nasopharyngeal swab for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 came back positive while the patient was in the airborne-isolation unit. Laboratory data showed lymphopenia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, and interleukin-6. The patient was initially started on oral hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. On day 6, she developed ARDS and septic shock, for which mechanical ventilation and pressor support were started, along with infusion of high-dose intravenous vitamin C. The patient improved clinically and was able to be taken off mechanical ventilation within 5 days. CONCLUSIONS This report highlights the potential benefits of high-dose intravenous vitamin C in critically ill COVID-19 patients in terms of rapid recovery and shortened length of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay. Further studies will elaborate on the efficacy of intravenous vitamin C in critically ill COVID-19.