Clinical guidance for navigating the QTc-prolonging and arrhythmogenic potential of pharmacotherapy during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Irish journal of medical science. 2021;(1):403-409
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), has rapidly spread since December 2019 to become the focus of healthcare systems worldwide. Its highly contagious nature and significant mortality has led to its prioritization as a public health issue. The race to prevent and treat this disease has led to "off-label" prescribing of medications such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir). Currently, there is no robust clinical evidence for the use of these drugs in the treatment of COVID-19, with most, if not all of these medications associated with the potential for QT interval prolongation, torsades de pointes, and resultant drug-induced sudden cardiac death. The aim of this document is to help healthcare providers mitigate the potential deleterious effects of drug-induced QTc prolongation.
Correlation of D-xylose with severity and morbidity-related factors of COVID-19 and possible therapeutic use of D-xylose and antibiotics for COVID-19.
Life sciences. 2020;:118335
The SARS-Cov-2 pandemic that currently affects the entire world has been shown to be especially dangerous in the elderly (≥65 years) and in smokers, with notably strong comorbidity in patients already suffering from chronic diseases, such as Type 2 diabetes, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases, obesity, and hypertension. Inflammation of the lungs is the main factor leading to respiratory distress in patients with chronic respiratory disease and in patients with severe COVID-19. Several studies have shown that inflammation of the lungs in general and Type 2 diabetes are accompanied by the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), especially heparan sulfate (HS). Several studies have also shown the importance of countering the degradation of HS in lung infections and Type 2 diabetes. D-xylose, which is the initiating element for different sulfate GAG chains (especially HS), has shown regeneration properties for GAGs. D-xylose and xylitol have demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antiglycemic, antiviral, and antibacterial properties in lung infections, alone or in combination with antibiotics. Considering the existing research on COVID-19 and related to D-xylose/xylitol, this review offers a perspective on why the association between D-xylose and antibiotics may contribute to significantly reducing the duration of treatment of COVID-19 patients and why some anti-inflammatory drugs may increase the severity of COVID-19. A strong correlation with scurvy, based on gender, age, ethnicity, smoking status, and obesity status, is also reviewed. Related to this, the effects of treatment with plants such as Artemisia are also addressed. CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS D-xylose; xylitol; l-ascorbic Acid; D-glucuronic acid; N-acetylglucosamine; D-N-acetylglucosamine; N-acetylgalactosamine; galactose.
Tolerability and effectiveness of povidone-iodine or mupirocin versus saline sinus irrigations for chronic rhinosinusitis.
American journal of otolaryngology. 2020;(5):102604
OBJECTIVES The role of topical anti-infectives in acute exacerbations of chronic rhinosinusitis is controversial. Povidone-iodine is an anti-bacterial and anti-viral that is affordable and available over-the-counter and may demonstrate advantages over mupirocin as a sinus irrigation therapy. The objective was to compare povidone-iodine or mupirocin versus saline sinus irrigations for sinusitis exacerbations in post-surgery subjects as well as to assess tolerability of povidone-iodine sinus irrigations. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective single-blinded (clinician only) randomized controlled trial. Subjects were post-surgery with acute exacerbations of chronic rhinosinusitis and gram-positive bacteria on culture. They received povidone-iodine, mupirocin, or saline sinus irrigations, twice daily for 30 days. Outcomes were post-treatment culture negativity (primary) and Sinonasal Outcome Test-20 and Lund-Kennedy endoscopic score change (secondary). RESULTS Of the 62 subjects analyzed, post-treatment culture negativity rate was higher in the MUP (14/20, 70%) group compared to the PI (9/21, 43%) and SAL (9/19, 47%) groups, although this was not significant (p = 0.29). Povidone-iodine sinus irrigations at the 1% concentration were very well-tolerated, similar to saline irrigations. There were no significant differences in Sinonasal Outcome Test-20 score (povidone-iodine -0.3 [-0.6, 0.05] vs. mupirocin -0.3 [-0.7, 0.05] vs. saline -0.4 [-0.8, 0.05]; p = 0.86) or Lund-Kennedy endoscopic score (povidone-iodine -3.5 [-7, -0.5] vs. mupirocin -2 [-4, 2] vs. saline -3 [-5, 0]; p = 0.45) change. No serious adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS In patients who have had prior sinus surgery with acute exacerbations of CRS and gram-positive bacteria on culture, mupirocin sinus irrigations achieved a better post-treatment culture "control" rate compared to saline and povidone-iodine. In addition, 1% povidone-iodine solution was well-tolerated as a sinus irrigation and may represent a feasible method for temporarily disinfecting the sinonasal cavity of bacteria and viruses such as COVID-19.