Emerging agents for the treatment and prevention of stroke: progress in clinical trials.
Expert opinion on investigational drugs. 2021;(10):1025-1035
INTRODUCTION Recent years have witnessed unprecedented progress in stroke care, but unmet needs persist regarding the efficacy of acute treatment and secondary prevention. Novel approaches are being tested to enhance the efficacy of thrombolysis or provide neuroprotection in non-thrombolized patients. AREAS COVERED The current review highlights pharmaceutical agents under evaluation in clinical trials concerning the acute, subacute, and chronic phase post-stroke. We examine the evidence in favor of tenecteplase as an alternative thrombolytic drug to alteplase, nerinetide as a promising neuroprotective agent, and glibenclamide for reducing edema in malignant hemispheric infarction. We discuss the use of ticagrelor and the promising novel category of factor XI inhibitors in the subacute phase after stroke. We offer our insights on combined rivaroxaban and antiplatelet therapy, PCSK-9 inhibitors, and other non-statin hypolipidemic agents, as well as novel antidiabetic agents that have been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in the long-term. EXPERT OPINION Current approaches in stroke treatment and stroke prevention have already transformed stroke care from a linear one-for-all treatment paradigm to a more individualized approach that targets specific patient subgroups with novel pharmaceutical agents. This tendency enriches the therapeutic armamentarium with novel agents developed for specific stroke subgroups. ABBREVIATIONS IVT: intravenous thrombolysis; RCTs: randomized-controlled clinical trials; TNK: Tenecteplase; COVID-19: Coronavirus 2019 Disease; EXTEND-IA TNK The Tenecteplase versus Alteplase Before Endovascular Therapy for Ischemic Stroke trial; AIS: acute ischemic stroke; NNT: number needed to treat; MT: mechanical thrombectomy; sICH: symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage; mRS: modified Rankin Scale; AHA/ASA: American Heart Association/American Stroke Association; ESO: European Stroke Organization; NA-1: Nerinetide; ENACT Evaluating Neuroprotection in Aneurysm Coiling Therapy; CTA: CT angiography; TIA: transient ischemic attack; CHANCE Clopidogrel in High-risk patients with Acute Non-disabling Cerebrovascular Events; LOF: loss-of-function; PRINCE Platelet Reactivity in Acute Nondisabling Cerebrovascular Events; THALES Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated with Ticagrelor and ASA [acetylsalicylic acid] for Prevention of Stroke and Death; CHANCE-2: Clopidogrel With Aspirin in High-risk Patients With Acute Non-disabling Cerebrovascular Events II; FXI: Factor XI; PACIFIC-STROKE Program of Anticoagulation via Inhibition of FXIa by the Oral Compound BAY 2433334-NonCardioembolic Stroke study; COMPASS Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies; CANTOS-ICAD: Combination Antithrombotic Treatment for Prevention of Recurrent Ischemic Stroke in Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease; SAMMPRIS Stenting and Aggressive Medical Therapy for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis; WASID Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease; SPARCL Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TST: Treat Stroke to Target; IMPROVE-IT: Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial; PCSK9: proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9; FOURIER Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk; CLEAR Cholesterol Lowering via Bempedoic acid, an ACL-inhibiting Regimen; REDUCE-IT: Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA Intervention Trial; STRENGTH Outcomes Study to Assess STatin Residual Risk Reduction With EpaNova in HiGh CV Risk PatienTs With Hypertriglyceridemia; ACCORD Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes; ADVANCE Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation; VADT Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial; GLP-1R: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor; SGLT2: sodium-glucose cotransporter 2; CONVINCE COlchicine for preventioN of Vascular Inflammation in Non-CardioEmbolic stroke; PROBE Prospective Randomized Open-label Blinded Endpoint assessment.
Potential COVID-19 therapeutics from a rare disease: weaponizing lipid dysregulation to combat viral infectivity.
Journal of lipid research. 2020;(7):972-982
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 has resulted in the death of more than 328,000 persons worldwide in the first 5 months of 2020. Herculean efforts to rapidly design and produce vaccines and other antiviral interventions are ongoing. However, newly evolving viral mutations, the prospect of only temporary immunity, and a long path to regulatory approval pose significant challenges and call for a common, readily available, and inexpensive treatment. Strategic drug repurposing combined with rapid testing of established molecular targets could provide a pause in disease progression. SARS-CoV-2 shares extensive structural and functional conservation with SARS-CoV-1, including engagement of the same host cell receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) localized in cholesterol-rich microdomains. These lipid-enveloped viruses encounter the endosomal/lysosomal host compartment in a critical step of infection and maturation. Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a rare monogenic neurodegenerative disease caused by deficient efflux of lipids from the late endosome/lysosome (LE/L). The NP-C disease-causing gene (NPC1) has been strongly associated with viral infection, both as a filovirus receptor (e.g., Ebola) and through LE/L lipid trafficking. This suggests that NPC1 inhibitors or NP-C disease mimetics could serve as anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents. Fortunately, there are such clinically approved molecules that elicit antiviral activity in preclinical studies, without causing NP-C disease. Inhibition of NPC1 may impair viral SARS-CoV-2 infectivity via several lipid-dependent mechanisms, which disturb the microenvironment optimum for viral infectivity. We suggest that known mechanistic information on NPC1 could be utilized to identify existing and future drugs to treat COVID-19.