Identification of tear-based protein and non-protein biomarkers: Its application in diagnosis of human diseases using biosensors.
International journal of biological macromolecules. 2021;(Pt A):838-846
Discovery of robust, selective and specific biomarkers are important for early diagnosis and monitor progression of human diseases. Eye being a common target for several human diseases, vision impediment and complications are often associated with systemic and ocular diseases. Tears are bodily fluids that are closest to eye and are rich in protein content and other metabolites. As a biomarker repository, it advantages over other bodily fluids due to the ability to collect it non-invasively. In this review, we highlight some recent advancements in identification of tear-based protein biomarkers like lacryglobin and cystatin SA for cancer; interleukin-6 and immunoglobulin-A antibody for COVID-19; tau, amyloid-β-42 and lysozyme-C for Alzheimer's disease; peroxiredoxin-6 and α-synuclein for Parkinson's disease; kallikrein, angiotensin converting enzyme and lipocalin-1 for glaucoma; lactotransferrin and lipophilin-A for diabetic retinopathy and zinc-alpha-2 glycoprotein-1, prolactin and calcium binding protein-A4 for eye thyroid disease. We also discussed identification of tear based non-protein biomarkers like lysophospholipids and acetylcarnitine for glaucoma, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyquanosine and malondialdehyde for thyroid eye disease. We elucidate technological advancement in developing tear-based biosensors for diagnosis and monitoring diseases such as diabetes, diabetic retinopathy and Alzheimer's disease. Altogether, the study of tears as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of human diseases is promising.