Elevated glucose level leads to rapid COVID-19 progression and high fatality.
BMC pulmonary medicine. 2021;(1):64
OBJECTIVES We aimed to identify high-risk factors for disease progression and fatality for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS We enrolled 2433 COVID-19 patients and used LASSO regression and multivariable cause-specific Cox proportional hazard models to identify the risk factors for disease progression and fatality. RESULTS The median time for progression from mild-to-moderate, moderate-to-severe, severe-to-critical, and critical-to-death were 3.0 (interquartile range: 1.8-5.5), 3.0 (1.0-7.0), 3.0 (1.0-8.0), and 6.5 (4.0-16.3) days, respectively. Among 1,758 mild or moderate patients at admission, 474 (27.0%) progressed to a severe or critical stage. Age above 60 years, elevated levels of blood glucose, respiratory rate, fever, chest tightness, c-reaction protein, lactate dehydrogenase, direct bilirubin, and low albumin and lymphocyte count were significant risk factors for progression. Of 675 severe or critical patients at admission, 41 (6.1%) died. Age above 74 years, elevated levels of blood glucose, fibrinogen and creatine kinase-MB, and low plateleta count were significant risk factors for fatality. Patients with elevated blood glucose level were 58% more likely to progress and 3.22 times more likely to die of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS Older age, elevated glucose level, and clinical indicators related to systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organ failures, predict both the disease progression and the fatality of COVID-19 patients.
Blood glucose levels should be considered as a new vital sign indicative of prognosis during hospitalization.
Diabetes & metabolic syndrome. 2021;(1):221-227
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The measurement of vital signs is an important part of clinical work up. Presently, measurement of blood glucose is a factor for concern mostly when treating individuals with diabetes. Significance of blood glucose measurement in prognosis of non-diabetic and hospitalized patients is not clear. METHODS A systematic search of literature published in the Electronic databases, PubMed and Google Scholar was performed using following keywords; blood glucose, hospital admissions, critical illness, hospitalizations, cardiovascular disease (CVD), morbidity, and mortality. This literature search was largely restricted to non-diabetic individuals. RESULTS Blood glucose level, even when in high normal range, or in slightly high range, is an important determinant of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized patients. Further, even slight elevation of blood glucose may increase mortality in patients with COVID-19. Finally, blood glucose variability and hypoglycemia in critically ill individuals without diabetes causes excess in-hospital complications and mortality. CONCLUSION In view of these data, we emphasize the significance of blood glucose measurement in all patients admitted to the hospital regardless of presence of diabetes. We propose that blood glucose be included as the "fifth vital sign" for any hospitalized patient.
COVID-19 vaccination in pregnant and lactating diabetic women.
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD. 2021;(7):2151-2155
AIM: To discuss available information on the opportunity for pregnant women affected by diabetes/obesity to receive COVID-19 vaccine. DATA SYNTHESIS Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection are at high risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome and adverse outcomes. Pregnant women with severe COVID-19 present increased rates of preterm delivery (<37 gestational weeks), cesarean delivery and neonatal admissions to the intensive care unit. Comorbidity such as diabetes (pregestational or gestational) or obesity further increased maternal and fetal complications. It is known that diabetic or obese patients with COVID-19 present an unfavorable course and a worse prognosis, with a direct association between worse outcome and suboptimal glycol-metabolic control or body mass index (BMI) levels. Critical COVID-19 infection prevention is important for both mother and fetus. Vaccination during pregnancy is a common practice. Vaccines against COVID-19 are distributed across the world with some population considered to have a priority. Since pregnant women are excluded from clinical trials very little information are available on safety and efficacy of COVD-19 vaccines during pregnancy. However, it is well known the concept of passive immunization of the newborn obtained with transplacental passage of protective antibodies into the fetal/neonatal circulation after maternal infection or vaccination. Moreover, it has been reported that COVID-19 vaccine-induced IgG pass to the neonates through breastmilk. Therefore, maternal vaccination can protect mother, fetus and baby. CONCLUSIONS After an individual risk/benefit evaluation pregnant and lactating women should be counselled to receive COVID-19 vaccines.
High Fasting Blood Glucose Level With Unknown Prior History of Diabetes Is Associated With High Risk of Severe Adverse COVID-19 Outcome.
Frontiers in endocrinology. 2021;:791476
BACKGROUND We aimed to understand how glycaemic levels among COVID-19 patients impact their disease progression and clinical complications. METHODS We enrolled 2,366 COVID-19 patients from Huoshenshan hospital in Wuhan. We stratified the COVID-19 patients into four subgroups by current fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels and their awareness of prior diabetic status, including patients with FBG<6.1mmol/L with no history of diabetes (group 1), patients with FBG<6.1mmol/L with a history of diabetes diagnosed (group 2), patients with FBG≥6.1mmol/L with no history of diabetes (group 3) and patients with FBG≥6.1mmol/L with a history of diabetes diagnosed (group 4). A multivariate cause-specific Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess the associations between FBG levels or prior diabetic status and clinical adversities in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS COVID-19 patients with higher FBG and unknown diabetes in the past (group 3) are more likely to progress to the severe or critical stage than patients in other groups (severe: 38.46% vs 23.46%-30.70%; critical 7.69% vs 0.61%-3.96%). These patients also have the highest abnormal level of inflammatory parameters, complications, and clinical adversities among all four groups (all p<0.05). On day 21 of hospitalisation, group 3 had a significantly higher risk of ICU admission [14.1% (9.6%-18.6%)] than group 4 [7.0% (3.7%-10.3%)], group 2 [4.0% (0.2%-7.8%)] and group 1 [2.1% (1.4%-2.8%)], (P<0.001). Compared with group 1 who had low FBG, group 3 demonstrated 5 times higher risk of ICU admission events during hospitalisation (HR=5.38, 3.46-8.35, P<0.001), while group 4, where the patients had high FBG and prior diabetes diagnosed, also showed a significantly higher risk (HR=1.99, 1.12-3.52, P=0.019), but to a much lesser extent than in group 3. CONCLUSION Our study shows that COVID-19 patients with current high FBG levels but unaware of pre-existing diabetes, or possibly new onset diabetes as a result of COVID-19 infection, have a higher risk of more severe adverse outcomes than those aware of prior diagnosis of diabetes and those with low current FBG levels.
Increased stress, weight gain and less exercise in relation to glycemic control in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic.
BMJ open diabetes research & care. 2021;(1)
INTRODUCTION Lockdown measures have a profound effect on many aspects of daily life relevant for diabetes self-management. We assessed whether lockdown measures, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, differentially affect perceived stress, body weight, exercise and related this to glycemic control in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a short-term observational cohort study at the Leiden University Medical Center. People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes ≥18 years were eligible to participate. Participants filled out online questionnaires, sent in blood for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) analysis and shared data of their flash or continuous glucose sensors. HbA1c during the lockdown was compared with the last known HbA1c before the lockdown. RESULTS In total, 435 people were included (type 1 diabetes n=280, type 2 diabetes n=155). An increase in perceived stress and anxiety, weight gain and less exercise was observed in both groups. There was improvement in glycemic control in the group with the highest HbA1c tertile (type 1 diabetes: -0.39% (-4.3 mmol/mol) (p<0.0001 and type 2 diabetes: -0.62% (-6.8 mmol/mol) (p=0.0036). Perceived stress was associated with difficulty with glycemic control (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS An increase in perceived stress and anxiety, weight gain and less exercise but no deterioration of glycemic control occurs in both people with relatively well-controlled type 1 and type 2 diabetes during short-term lockdown measures. As perceived stress showed to be associated with glycemic control, this provides opportunities for healthcare professionals to put more emphasis on psychological aspects during diabetes care consultations.
COVID-19 pandemic: Can fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c replace the oral glucose tolerance test to screen for hyperglycaemia in pregnancy?
Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2021;:108640
AIMS: To evaluate proposals considering HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) measurement as a substitute for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to diagnose hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP) during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS Of the 7,334 women who underwent the OGTT between 22 and 30 weeks gestation, 966 had HIP (WHO diagnostic criteria, reference standard). The 467 women who had an available HbA1c were used for analysis. French-speaking Society of Diabetes (SFD) proposal to diagnose HIP during COVID-19 pandemic was retrospectively applied: HbA1c ≥5.7% (39 mmol/mol) and/or FPG level ≥5.1 mmol/l. SFD proposal sensitivity for HIP diagnosis and the occurrence of HIP-related events (preeclampsia, large for gestational age infant, shoulder dystocia or neonatal hypoglycaemia) in women with false negative (FN) and true positive (TP) HIP-diagnoses were evaluated. RESULTS The sensitivity was 57% [95% confidence interval 52-62]. FN women had globally lower plasma glucose levels during OGTT, lower HbA1c and body mass index than those TP. The percentage of HIP-related events was similar in FN (who were cared) and TP cases, respectively 19.5 and 16.9% (p = 0.48). We observed similar results when women at high risk for HIP only were considered. CONCLUSION The SFD proposal has a poor sensitivity to detect HIP. Furthermore, it fails to have any advantages in predicting adverse outcomes.
The effect of COVID-19 lockdown on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Turkey.
Diabetes & metabolic syndrome. 2020;(6):1963-1966
BACKGROUND AND AIMS A national lockdown to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Turkey was introduced in March 2020. We think that lockdowns may lead to weight gain and worsening of glycemic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The purpose of this study was to investigate how type 2 DM patients were affected by the lockdown. METHOD Type 2 DM patients unable to attend regular follow-ups due to lockdown over a 75-day period between March and June 2020 and who again attended polyclinic follow-up when the lockdown was lifted were included in the study. These patients' glycemic control and weight status were compared with the pre-lockdown period. In addition, patients' general habits, and adherence to diet and exercise were evaluated, while their general health was assessed using the Short-Form 36-item survey. RESULT The research involved 101 type 2 DM patients, 57 men (56.5%) and 44 women (44.5%), with a mean age of 55 ± 13. Patients' mean pre-lockdown weight was 84.7 ± 16.4 kg, rising to 85.5 ± 16.8 kg post-lockdown, although the increase was not statistically significant (p = 0.781). In terms of glycemic parameters, Hba1c rose from 7.67 ± 1.76 to 8.11 ± 2.48, and fasting glucose from 157.9 (83-645) mg/dl to 163.2 (84-550) mg/dl, none of which were statistically significant (p = 0.253, p = 0.079, respectively). CONCLUSION In addition to weight gain among type 2 DM patients during the Covid 19 lockdown, statistically insignificant increases were also observed in such glycemic parameters. This was a small sample and further studies with larger sample are needed.
Fasting blood glucose level is a predictor of mortality in patients with COVID-19 independent of diabetes history.
Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2020;:108437
AIM: No study elucidated the role of fasting blood glucose (FBG) level in the prognosis
of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS This cohort study was conducted in a single center at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. Clinical laboratory, and treatment data of inpatients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were collected and analyzed. Outcomes of patients with and without pre-existing diabetes were compared. The associations of diabetes history and/or FBG levels with mortality were analyzed. Multivariate cox regression analysis on the risk factors associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 was performed. RESULTS A total of 941 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in the study. There was a positive relationship between pre-existing diabetes and the mortality of patients who developed COVID-19 (21 of 123 [17.1%] vs 76 of 818 [9.3%]; P = 0.012). FBG ≥7.0 mmol/L was an independent risk factor for the mortality of COVID-19 regardless of the presence or not of a history of diabetes (hazard ratio, 2.20 [95% CI, 1.21-4.03]; P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS We firstly showed FBG ≥7.0 mmol/L predicted worse outcome in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 independent of diabetes history. Our findings indicated screening FBG level is an effective method to evaluate the prognosis of patients with COVID-19.
The associations between fasting plasma glucose levels and mortality of COVID-19 in patients without diabetes.
Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2020;:108448
AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which is a novel pneumonia can rapidly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. It has appeared in 196 countries around the world. We aimed to clarify the associations between fasting plasma glucose levels and mortality of COVID-19 in patients without diabetes. METHODS We performed a retrospective, single-center study of 151 patients without diabetes in Tongji Hospital from January 1, 2020 to February 28, 2020. Past medical histories, clinical features and laboratory parameters were collected in these patients. RESULTS Compared with survivors, non-survivors were more likely to have underlying medical conditions including hypertension and chronic pulmonary diseases. Non-survivors had higher C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, IL-8 and, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, while lower lymphocyte counts as compared with those of survivors (all P<0.05). Besides, patients with higher fasting plasma glucose (FPG) had higher IL-6, IL-8, CRP levels and mortality; while lower lymphocyte counts. After adjusting for age and gender, each tertile increment of FPG levels conferred 3.54-fold higher risks of death (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% confidential interval, 1.25-10.06, P=0.018). CONCLUSIONS Non-survivors combined with more comorbidities, more severe infection, and worse liver, kidney and cardiac function in patients without diabetes. Additionally, fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly associated with the risk of death in patients even with normal FPG and HbA1c levels.
Clinical profile and outcomes in COVID-19 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis: A systematic review of literature.
Diabetes & metabolic syndrome. 2020;(6):1563-1569
BACKGROUND AND AIM To conduct a systematic literature review and analyze the demographic/biochemical parameters and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and combined DKA/HHS (hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome). METHODS PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were systematically searched till August 3, 2020 to identify studies reporting COVID-19 patients with DKA and combined DKA/HHS. A total of 19 articles reporting 110 patients met the eligibility criteria. RESULTS Of the 110 patients, 91 (83%) patients had isolated DKA while 19 (17%) had DKA/HHS. The majority of the patients were male (63%) and belonged to black ethnicity (36%). The median age at presentation ranged from 45.5 to 59.0 years. Most of the patients (77%) had pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Only 10% of the patients had newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. The median blood glucose at presentation ranged from 486.0 to 568.5 mg/dl, being higher in patients with DKA/HHS compared to isolated DKA. The volume of fluid replaced in the first 24 h was higher in patients with DKA/HHS in contrast to patients with DKA alone. The in-hospital mortality rate was 45%, with higher mortality in the DKA/HHS group than in the isolated DKA group (67% vs. 29%). pH was lower in patients who had died compared to those who were discharged. CONCLUSION DKA in COVID-19 patients portends a poor prognosis with a mortality rate approaching 50%. Differentiating isolated DKA from combined DKA/HHS is essential as the latter represents nearly one-fifth of the DKA cases and tends to have higher mortality than DKA alone.