Prognostic Role of Malnutrition Diagnosed by Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis in Older Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Prospective Study.
BACKGROUND Little is known on the clinical relevance of the nutritional status and body composition of patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), and to evaluate the relationship of their nutritional status with the severity and outcome of disease. METHODS Among 150 consecutive patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia, 37 (24.3%) were classified as malnourished by BIVA, and were followed-up for 60 days from admission. Outcome measures were differences in the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, in-hospital mortality, and the duration of hospital stay in survivors. RESULTS During 60 days of follow-up, 10 (27%) malnourished patients and 13 (12%) non-malnourished patients required invasive mechanical ventilation (p = 0.023), and 13 (35%) malnourished patients and 9 (8%) non-malnourished patients died (p < 0.001). The average duration of the hospital stay in survivors was longer in patients with malnutrition (18.2 ± 15.7 vs. 13.2 ± 14.8 days, p < 0.001). In survival analyses, mechanical ventilation free (log-rank 7.887, p = 0.050) and overall (log-rank 17.886, p < 0.001) survival were significantly longer in non-malnourished than malnourished patients. The Cox proportional ratio showed that malnutrition was associated with an increased risk of mechanical ventilation (HR 4.375, p = 0.004) and death (HR 4.478, p = 0.004) after adjusting for major confounders such as age, sex, and BMI. CONCLUSIONS Malnutrition diagnosed with BIVA was associated with worse outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.