Laboratory abnormalities in children with mild and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A pooled analysis and review.
Clinical biochemistry. 2020;:1-8
Limited data exists to-date on the laboratory findings in children with COVID-19, warranting the conduction of this study, in which we pool the currently available literature data on the laboratory findings seen in children with mild and severe COVID-19. Following an extensive literature search, we identified 24 eligible studies, including a total of 624 pediatric cases with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, which report data on 27 different biomarkers. We then performed a meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence estimates (PPE) for these laboratory abnormalities in mild COVID-19. As data was too limited for children with severe COVID-19 to allow pooling, results were presented descriptively in a summary of findings table. Our data show an inconsistent pattern of change in the leukocyte index of mild and severe cases of COVID-19 in children. Specifically, changes in leukocyte counts were only observed in 32% of the mild pediatric cases (PPE: 13% increase, 19% decrease). In mild disease, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) was frequently elevated, with a PPE of 33%. In severe disease, c-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were frequently elevated. Based on data obtained from early COVID-19 studies, leukocyte indices in children appear inconsistent, differing from those reported in adults that highlight specific leukocyte trends. This brings into question the utility and reliability of such parameters in monitoring disease severity in the pediatric population. Instead, we suggest physicians to serially monitor CRP, PCT, and LDH to track the course of illness in hospitalized children. Finally, elevated CK-MB in mild pediatric COVID-19 cases is indicative of possible cardiac injury. This highlights the importance of monitoring cardiac biomarkers in hospitalized patients and the need for further investigation of markers such as cardiac troponin in future studies.
Lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein as predictors of respiratory failure in CoVID-19 patients.
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2020;:135-138
OBJECTIVE The dramatic worldwide CoVID-19 infection requires the identification of a reliable and inexpensive tool to quickly discriminate patients with a more unfavorable outcome. METHODS We performed routine laboratory tests suitable to identify tissue damage and inflammatory status in 123 consecutive CoVID-19 patients admitted to the Emergency Department of the hospital of Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy). The results were correlated with patients' respiratory function evaluated by the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2). RESULTS The most common laboratory abnormalities were lymphocytopenia and elevated values of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) were also increased. The respiratory performance (PaO2/FiO2) showed a strong inverse correlation with LDH (r = 0.62, r2 0.38, p value < 0.0001) and CRP (r = 0.55, r2 0.31, p value < 0.0001). PaO2/FiO2 values also showed a significant inverse correlation with age (r = -0.37, p < 0.0001), AST (r = -0.31, p < 0.01), WBC (r = -0.49, p < 0.0001), neutrophils count (r = -0.5, p < 0.001). ROC curves showed a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 70% for the LDH cut-off value of 450 U/L and a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 71% for the CRP cut-off value of 11 mg/dl in identifying CoVID-19 with moderate-severe ARDS. CONCLUSIONS LDH and CRP may be related to respiratory function (PaO2/FiO2) and be a predictor of respiratory failure in CoVID-19 patients. LDH and CRP should be considered a useful test for the early identification of patients who require closer respiratory monitoring and more aggressive supportive therapies to avoid poor prognosis.