Implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic for Cardiovascular Disease and Risk-Factor Management.
The Canadian journal of cardiology. 2021;(5):722-732
COVID-19 and our public health responses to the pandemic may have far-reaching implications for cardiovascular (CV) risk, affecting the general population and not only survivors of COVID-19. In this narrative review, we discuss how the pandemic may affect general CV risk for years to come and explore the mitigating potential of telehealth interventions. From a health care perspective, the shift away from in-person office visits may have led many to defer routine risk- factor management and may have had unforeseen effects on continuity of care and adherence. Fear of COVID-19 has led some patients to forego care for acute CV events. Curtailment of routine outpatient laboratory testing has likely delayed intensification of risk-factor-modifying medical therapy, and drug shortages and misinformation may have negative impacts on adherence to antihypertensive, glucose-lowering, and lipid-lowering agents. From a societal perspective, the unprecedented curtailment of social and economic activities has led to loss of income, unemployment, social isolation, decreased physical activity, and increased frequency of depression and anxiety, all of which are known to be associated with worse CV risk-factor control and outcomes. We must embrace and evaluate measures to mitigate these potential harms to avoid an epidemic of CV morbidity and mortality in the coming years that could dwarf the initial health effects of COVID-19.
Delivering healthcare remotely to cardiovascular patients during COVID-19 : A rapid review of the evidence.
European journal of cardiovascular nursing. 2020;(6):486-494
BACKGROUND Although attention is focused on addressing the acute situation created by the COVID-19 illness, it is imperative to continue our efforts to prevent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, particularly during a period of prolonged social isolation which may limit physical activity, adversely affect mental health and reduce access to usual care. One option may be to deliver healthcare interventions remotely through digital healthcare solutions. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to bring together the evidence for remote healthcare during a quarantine situation period to support people living with cardiovascular disease during COVID-19 isolation. METHODS The PubMed, CINAHL and Google Scholar were searched using telehealth OR digital health OR mHealth OR eHealth OR mobile apps AND COVID-19 OR quarantine search terms. We also searched for literature relating to cardiovascular disease AND quarantine. RESULTS The literature search identified 45 potentially relevant publications, out of which nine articles were included. Three overarching themes emerged from this review: (1) preparing the workforce and ensuring reimbursement for remote healthcare, (2) supporting mental and physical health and (3) supporting usual care. CONCLUSION To support people living with cardiovascular disease during COVID-19 isolation and to mitigate the effects of quarantine and adverse effect on mental and physical well-being, we should offer remote healthcare and provide access to their usual care.
Practical tips for prevention of cardiovascular disease in women after quarantine for COVID-19 disease.
Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis. 2020;(4):e2020127
To contain the spread of CoV-19 / SARS-CoV-2 infection, several governments have imposed collective quarantine on the population. All of these restrictions have influenced women's health and induced an unhealthy lifestyle that, in some cases, could persist after the lockdown. The present commentary briefly analyzes the effects of quarantine on women's lifestyle. Quarantine is associated with stress and depression, which lead to unhealthy nutrition and reduced physical activity, particularly in women. Unhealthy diet is usually poor in fruit and vegetables, with a consequent low intake of antioxidants and vitamins. However, vitamins have recently been identified as a weapon in the fight against the Covid-19. Some reports suggest that Vitamin D could exert a protective effect on such infection. In addition, women are less likely to engage in regular physical activity and have increased sitting time and sedentary behaviors during quarantine, which have led to weight gain. During quarantine strategies to increase home-based physical activity and to encourage adherence to a healthy diet have been implemented. Following quarantine, a global action supporting healthy Diet and physical activity is mandatory to encourage women to return to a good lifestyle routine.
Behavior Change Techniques in Physical Activity eHealth Interventions for People With Cardiovascular Disease: Systematic Review.
Journal of medical Internet research. 2017;(8):e281
BACKGROUND Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of premature death and disability in Europe, accounting for 4 million deaths per year and costing the European Union economy almost €196 billion annually. There is strong evidence to suggest that exercise-based secondary rehabilitation programs can decrease the mortality risk and improve health among patients with CVD. Theory-informed use of behavior change techniques (BCTs) is important in the design of cardiac rehabilitation programs aimed at changing cardiovascular risk factors. Electronic health (eHealth) is the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for health. This emerging area of health care has the ability to enhance self-management of chronic disease by making health care more accessible, affordable, and available to the public. However, evidence-based information on the use of BCTs in eHealth interventions is limited, and particularly so, for individuals living with CVD. OBJECTIVE The aim of this systematic review was to assess the application of BCTs in eHealth interventions designed to increase physical activity (PA) in CVD populations. METHODS A total of 7 electronic databases, including EBSCOhost (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus with Full Text, and CINAHL Complete), Scopus, and Web of Science (Core Collection) were searched. Two authors independently reviewed references using the software package Covidence (Veritas Health Innovation). The reviewers met to resolve any discrepancies, with a third independent reviewer acting as an arbitrator when required. Following this, data were extracted from the papers that met the inclusion criteria. Bias assessment of the studies was carried out using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias within Covidence; this was followed by a narrative synthesis. RESULTS Out of the 987 studies that were identified, 14 were included in the review. An additional 9 studies were added following a hand search of review paper references. The average number of BCTs used across the 23 studies was 7.2 (range 1-19). The top three most frequently used BCTs included information about health consequences (78%, 18/23), goal setting (behavior; 74%, 17/23), and joint third, self-monitoring of behavior and social support (practical) were included in 11 studies (48%, 11/23) each. CONCLUSIONS This systematic review is the first to investigate the use of BCTs in PA eHealth interventions specifically designed for people with CVD. This research will have clear implications for health care policy and research by outlining the BCTs used in eHealth interventions for chronic illnesses, in particular CVD, thereby providing clear foundations for further research and developments in the area.