Protecting older patients with cardiovascular diseases from COVID-19 complications using current medications.
European geriatric medicine. 2021;(4):725-739
PURPOSE In the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 complications, derangements of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), vascular endothelial dysfunction leading to inflammation and coagulopathy, and arrhythmias play an important role. Therefore, it is worth considering the use of currently available drugs to protect COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular diseases. METHODS We review the current experience of conventional cardiovascular drugs [angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, anticoagulants, acetosalicylic acid, antiarrhythmic drugs, statins] as well as some other drug classes (antidiabetic drugs, vitamin D and NSAIDs) frequently used by older patients with cardiovascular diseases. Data were sought from clinical databases for COVID-19 and appropriate key words. Conclusions and recommendations are based on a consensus among all authors. RESULTS Several cardiovascular drugs have a potential to protect patients with COVID-19, although evidence is largely based on retrospective, observational studies. Despite propensity score adjustments used in many analyses observational studies are not equivalent to randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Ongoing RCTs include treatment with antithrombotics, pulmonary vasodilators, RAAS-related drugs, and colchicine. RCTs in the acute phase of COVID-19 may not, however, recognise the benefits of long term anti-atherogenic therapies, such as statins. CONCLUSIONS Most current cardiovascular drugs can be safely continued during COVID-19. Some drug classes may even be protective. Age-specific data are scarce, though, and conditions which are common in older patients (frailty, comorbidities, polypharmacy) must be individually considered for each drug group.
Nutrition, atherosclerosis, arterial imaging, cardiovascular risk stratification, and manifestations in COVID-19 framework: a narrative review.
Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition). 2021;(11):1312-1339
Background: Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of the cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several risk factors lead to atherosclerosis, and altered nutrition is one among those. Nutrition has been ignored quite often in the process of CVD risk assessment. Altered nutrition along with carotid ultrasound imaging-driven atherosclerotic plaque features can help in understanding and banishing the problems associated with the late diagnosis of CVD. Artificial intelligence (AI) is another promisingly adopted technology for CVD risk assessment and management. Therefore, we hypothesize that the risk of atherosclerotic CVD can be accurately monitored using carotid ultrasound imaging, predicted using AI-based algorithms, and reduced with the help of proper nutrition. Layout: The review presents a pathophysiological link between nutrition and atherosclerosis by gaining a deep insight into the processes involved at each stage of plaque development. After targeting the causes and finding out results by low-cost, user-friendly, ultrasound-based arterial imaging, it is important to (i) stratify the risks and (ii) monitor them by measuring plaque burden and computing risk score as part of the preventive framework. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based strategies are used to provide efficient CVD risk assessments. Finally, the review presents the role of AI for CVD risk assessment during COVID-19. Conclusions: By studying the mechanism of low-density lipoprotein formation, saturated and trans fat, and other dietary components that lead to plaque formation, we demonstrate the use of CVD risk assessment due to nutrition and atherosclerosis disease formation during normal and COVID times. Further, nutrition if included, as a part of the associated risk factors can benefit from atherosclerotic disease progression and its management using AI-based CVD risk assessment.
Beneficial Properties of Bromelain.
Bromelain is a major sulfhydryl proteolytic enzyme found in pineapple plants, having multiple activities in many areas of medicine. Due to its low toxicity, high efficiency, high availability, and relative simplicity of acquisition, it is the object of inexhaustible interest of scientists. This review summarizes scientific reports concerning the possible application of bromelain in treating cardiovascular diseases, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis disorders, infectious diseases, inflammation-associated diseases, and many types of cancer. However, for the proper application of such multi-action activities of bromelain, further exploration of the mechanism of its action is needed. It is supposed that the anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and anti-coagulatory activity of bromelain may become a complementary therapy for COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 patients. During the irrepressible spread of novel variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, such beneficial properties of this biomolecule might help prevent escalation and the progression of the COVID-19 disease.
Common cardiovascular risk factors and in-hospital mortality in 3,894 patients with COVID-19: survival analysis and machine learning-based findings from the multicentre Italian CORIST Study.
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD. 2020;(11):1899-1913
BACKGROUND AND AIMS There is poor knowledge on characteristics, comorbidities and laboratory measures associated with risk for adverse outcomes and in-hospital mortality in European Countries. We aimed at identifying baseline characteristics predisposing COVID-19 patients to in-hospital death. METHODS AND RESULTS Retrospective observational study on 3894 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized from February 19th to May 23rd, 2020 and recruited in 30 clinical centres distributed throughout Italy. Machine learning (random forest)-based and Cox survival analysis. 61.7% of participants were men (median age 67 years), followed up for a median of 13 days. In-hospital mortality exhibited a geographical gradient, Northern Italian regions featuring more than twofold higher death rates as compared to Central/Southern areas (15.6% vs 6.4%, respectively). Machine learning analysis revealed that the most important features in death classification were impaired renal function, elevated C reactive protein and advanced age. These findings were confirmed by multivariable Cox survival analysis (hazard ratio (HR): 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.6-14.7 for age ≥85 vs 18-44 y); HR = 4.7; 2.9-7.7 for estimated glomerular filtration rate levels <15 vs ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2; HR = 2.3; 1.5-3.6 for C-reactive protein levels ≥10 vs ≤ 3 mg/L). No relation was found with obesity, tobacco use, cardiovascular disease and related-comorbidities. The associations between these variables and mortality were substantially homogenous across all sub-groups analyses. CONCLUSIONS Impaired renal function, elevated C-reactive protein and advanced age were major predictors of in-hospital death in a large cohort of unselected patients with COVID-19, admitted to 30 different clinical centres all over Italy.
Practical tips for prevention of cardiovascular disease in women after quarantine for COVID-19 disease.
Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis. 2020;(4):e2020127
To contain the spread of CoV-19 / SARS-CoV-2 infection, several governments have imposed collective quarantine on the population. All of these restrictions have influenced women's health and induced an unhealthy lifestyle that, in some cases, could persist after the lockdown. The present commentary briefly analyzes the effects of quarantine on women's lifestyle. Quarantine is associated with stress and depression, which lead to unhealthy nutrition and reduced physical activity, particularly in women. Unhealthy diet is usually poor in fruit and vegetables, with a consequent low intake of antioxidants and vitamins. However, vitamins have recently been identified as a weapon in the fight against the Covid-19. Some reports suggest that Vitamin D could exert a protective effect on such infection. In addition, women are less likely to engage in regular physical activity and have increased sitting time and sedentary behaviors during quarantine, which have led to weight gain. During quarantine strategies to increase home-based physical activity and to encourage adherence to a healthy diet have been implemented. Following quarantine, a global action supporting healthy Diet and physical activity is mandatory to encourage women to return to a good lifestyle routine.