High triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol ratio as a biochemical marker of severe outcomes in COVID-19 patients.
Clinical nutrition ESPEN. 2021;:437-444
BACKGROUND & AIMS Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with severe complications have shown comorbidities with cardiovascular-disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus; clinical disorders that share the common metabolic alterations of insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. A high triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (Tg/HDL c) ratio has been associated with reduced insulin sensitivity, metabolic syndrome and adverse cardiovascular events. Our aim in this study was to determine the association between different components of the lipid profile and particularly the Tg/HDL c ratio with severe complications like the requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation in COVID-19 patients. METHODS We collected demographic, clinical and biochemical data to conduct a cohort study in 43 adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) at baseline and in the subsequent 15 days. Patients were subjected to a very similar treatment scheme with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. Descriptive statistics, variable association and logistic regression were applied to identify predictors of disease severity among elements and calculations from the lipid profile. RESULTS Patients were aged 57 ± 14 years; 55.8% were male from which 75% required hospitalization and 44.2% were female who 58% were hospitalized. The most common comorbidities were type 2 diabetes mellitus (58%) and hypertension (40%). Hospitalized and critical care patients showed lower HDL c blood levels and increased Tg/HDL c ratio than those with outpatient management and mild/asymptomatic COVID-19. Tg/HDL c ratio correlated with variables of disease severity such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (r = 0.356; p < 0.05); National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS 2) (r = 0.495; p < 0.01); quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) (r = 0.538; p < 0.001); increased need of oxygen support (r = 0.447; p < 0.01) and requirement of mechanical ventilation (r = 0.378; p < 0.05). Tg/HDL c ratio had a negative correlation with partial oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SaO 2/FiO2) ratio (r = -0.332;p < 0.05). Linear regression analysis showed that Tg/HDL c ratio can predict increases in inflammatory factors like LDH (p < 0.01); ferritin (p < 0.01) and D-dimer (p < 0.001). Logistic regression model indicated that ≥7.45 Tg/HDL c ratio predicts requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 11.815, CI 1.832-76.186, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS The Tg/HDLc ratio can be used as an early biochemical marker of COVID-19 severe prognosis with requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation.
Low high-density lipoprotein level is correlated with the severity of COVID-19 patients: an observational study.
Lipids in health and disease. 2020;(1):204
BACKGROUND The purpose of the study is to describe the blood lipid levels of patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to analyze the correlation between blood lipid levels and the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. METHODS In the clinical retrospective analysis, a total of 228 adults infected with COVID-19 were enrolled between January 17, 2020 and March 14, 2020, in Changsha, China. One thousand one hundred and forty healthy participants with matched age and gender were used as control. Median with interquartile range and Mann-Whitney test were adopted to describe and analyze clinical data. The Kaplan-Meier (KM) curve and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the correlation between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and the severity of COVID-19. RESULTS Compared with control, COVID-19 patients showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC) [median, 3.76 vs 4.65 mmol/L, P = 0.031], triglyceride [median, 1.08 vs 1.21 mmol/L, P < 0.001], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) [median, 2.63 vs 2.83 mmol/L, P < 0.001], and HDL-C [median, 0.78 vs 1.37 mmol/L, P < 0.001], while compared with non-severe patients, severe COVID-19 patients only presented lower levels of HDL-C [median, 0.69 vs 0.79 mmol/L, P = 0.032]. In comparison with patients with high HDL-C, patients with low HDL-C showed a higher proportion of male (69.57% vs 45.60%, P = 0.004), higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) (median, 27.83 vs 12.56 mg/L, P < 0.001) and higher proportion of severe events (36.96% vs 14.84%, P = 0.001). Moreover, patients with low HDL-C at admission showed a higher risk of developing severe events compared with those with high HDL-C (Log Rank P = 0.009). After adjusting for age, gender and underlying diseases, they still had elevated possibility of developing severe cases than those with high HDL-C (HR 2.827, 95% CI 1.190-6.714, P = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS HDL-C level was lower in COVID-19 adult patients, and low HDL-C in COVID-19 patients was correlated with a higher risk of developing severe events.