Impact of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases on the severity of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
We examined the effects of coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension and diabetes on the development of severe COVID-19. We performed a comprehensive, systematic literature search for studies published between December 2019 and July 5, 2020 in five databases. The prevalence of severe COVID-19 in patients with CHD, hypertension and diabetes was evaluated through a meta-analysis. Thirty-five articles with 8,170 patients were included, and all the available studies were case series. The pooled odds ratio for the development of severe COVID-19 was 3.21 for patients with CHD (fixed-effects model, 95% CI: 2.58-3.99), 2.27 for patients with hypertension (random-effects model, 95% CI: 1.79-2.90) and 2.34 for patients with diabetes (random-effects model, 95% CI: 1.79-3.05). The heterogeneity of the studies was moderate for the effect of CHD on COVID-19 severity, but was high for the effects of diabetes and hypertension. Funnel plots and Egger's tests revealed no publication bias in the CHD and hypertension analyses, but suggested publication bias in the diabetes analysis. This bias was corrected using the trim-and-fill method, and was ultimately found to have no effect on the results. Our findings suggest patients with CHD, hypertension and diabetes are at greater risk for developing severe COVID-19 than those without these conditions.