Effects of Probiotics in Conditions or Infections Similar to COVID-19 on Health Outcomes: An Evidence Analysis Center Scoping Review.
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2021;(9):1841-1854
Probiotics have been suggested as a potential intervention for improving outcomes, particularly ventilatory-associated pneumonia, in patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, with the rapid development of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is little direct evidence available in infected patients. The objective of this scoping review is to examine the availability and nature of literature describing the effect of probiotics in adults with conditions or infections similar to COVID-19 infection on related health outcomes. MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane Databases were searched for studies published from 1999 to May 1, 2020, examining the effect of probiotics in conditions applicable to individuals infected with COVID-19, including, but not limited to, other forms of coronavirus, critical illness, and mechanical ventilation. The databases search identified 1925 unique articles, 77 full-text articles were reviewed, and 48 studies were included in this scoping review, including 31 primary studies and 17 systematic reviews. Primary studies examined a range of interventions that varied by probiotic diversity and types, including 8 studies that focused on synbiotics, which include both pre- and probiotics. Several systematic reviews examined the effect of probiotics on ventilator-associated pneumonia and other infections. Although most systematic reviews concluded probiotics may improve these outcomes, most systematic review authors concluded that the evidence was low in quality and high in heterogeneity. In the absence of direct evidence with patients infected with COVID-19, studies in comparable populations are currently the best resource to guide probiotics interventions in conjunction with clinical expertise and multidisciplinary health care planning.
Traditional herbal medicines to overcome stress, anxiety and improve mental health in outbreaks of human coronaviruses.
Phytotherapy research : PTR. 2021;(3):1237-1247
Mental health condition is including depression and anxiety, and they may impact wellbeing, personal relationships and productivity of both genders. Herbal medicines have been used to treatment of anxiety and depression symptoms for centuries. SARS, MERS and COVID-19 are related to coronavirus types. SARS (sever acute respiratory syndrome, China, 2002), MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome, Saudi Arabia, 2012), and SARS-CoV-2 (2019-2020) are the main coronavirus outbreaks. Both anxiety and depression are more serious to be considered and improved for all general public during fight with these diseases. In this mini-review article, we have mentioned the key role some of the most important plants and herbs for treatment of stress and anxiety and improve mental health against SARS and SARS-CoV-2 on the basis of traditional Asian medicine, especially traditional Chinese and Persian medicine.
A narrative literature review on traditional medicine options for treatment of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Complementary therapies in clinical practice. 2020;:101214
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a life-threatening disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is accounted as global public health concern. Treatment of COVID-19 is primarily supportive and the role of antiviral agents is yet to be established. However, there are no specific anti-COVID-19 drugs and vaccine until now. This review focuses on traditional medicine such as medicinal plant extracts as promising approaches against COVID-19. Chinese, Indian and Iranian traditional medicine, suggests some herbs for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of the diseases including COVID-19. Although, inhibition of viral replication is considered as general mechanism of herbal extracts, however some studies demonstrated that traditional herbal extracts can interact with key viral proteins which are associated with virus virulence. Chinese, Indian and Iranian traditional medicine, suggests some herbs for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of the diseases including COVID-19. However the beneficial effects of these traditional medicines and their clinical trials remained to be known. Herein, we reviewed the latest updates on traditional medicines proposed for treatment of COVID-19.
Practical Recommendations for Maintaining Active Lifestyle during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Literature Review.
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2020;(17)
Diminished volumes of habitual physical activity and increased sedentary levels have been observed as a result of COVID-19 home-confinement. Consequences of inactivity, including a higher mortality rate and poorer general health and fitness, have been reported. This systematic review aimed to provide practical recommendations for maintaining active lifestyles during pandemics. In May 2020, two electronic databases (PubMed; Web of Science) were used to search for relevant studies. A total of 1206 records were screened by two researchers. Thirty-one relevant studies were included in this systematic review, in which the methodological quality was assessed. With regard to six studies, which explicitly dealt with physical activity during COVID-19, the evidence level is classified by three articles to level II, and in the other three to level VI. Regarding the physical activity recommendations in these papers, three of them were classified to a medium, and the same number to a weak evidence base. Of the 25 papers which refer to other pandemics and/or isolation situations, one was classified to evidence level I, four were ranged to level II, three to level III, one to level V, and the others to level VI. This systematic review revealed that reduced physical activity levels are of serious concern during home confinement in pandemic times. The recommendations provided by many international organizations to maintain active lifestyles during these times mainly target the general population, with less consideration for vulnerable populations (e.g., older adults, people with health issues). Therefore, personalized and supervised physical activity programs are urgently needed, with the option to group-play physical activity programs (e.g., exergames). These can be assisted, delivered, and disseminated worldwide through information and communication technology solutions. If it is permitted and safe, being active outside in daylight is advised, with an effort level of mild to moderate using the rating of perceived exertion scale. Relaxation techniques should be integrated into the daily routine to reduce stress levels. On the evidence base and levels of the included articles in this review, the results need to be interpreted with caution. Given that policies are different across regions and countries, further research is needed to categorize recommendations according to different social-distancing scenarios.
Italian recommendations for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes during COVID-19 pandemic: Position statement of the Italian Association of Clinical Diabetologists (AMD) and the Italian Diabetes Society (SID), diabetes, and pregnancy study group.
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD. 2020;(9):1418-1422
AIM: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a need for substantial changes in the procedures for accessing healthcare services. Even in the current pandemic, we should not reduce our attention towards the diagnosis and treatment of GDM. The purpose of this document is to provide a temporary guide for GDM screening, replacing the current guidelines when it is not possible to implement standard GDM screening because of an unfavorable risk/benefit ratio for pregnant women or when usual laboratory facilities are not available. DATA SYNTHESIS At the first visit during pregnancy, we must exclude the presence of "Overt diabetes" in all women. The criteria for the diagnosis of overt diabetes are either fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL, or random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL, or glycated hemoglobin ≥6.5%. When the screening procedure (OGTT) cannot be safely performed, the diagnosis of GDM is acceptable if fasting plasma glucose is ≥ 92 mg/dL. In order to consider the impaired fasting glucose as an acceptable surrogate for the diagnosis of GDM, the fasting glucose measurement should be performed within the recommended time windows for the risk level (high or medium risk). CONCLUSIONS The changes to the screening procedure for GDM reported below are specifically produced in response to the health emergency of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, these recommended changes should cease to be in effect and should be replaced by current national guidelines when the healthcare authorities declare the end of this emergency.
Metabolic Impacts of Confinement during the COVID-19 Pandemic Due to Modified Diet and Physical Activity Habits.
While the detrimental effects of a chronic positive energy balance due to a sedentary lifestyle have been well established, the impacts of a short period of abruptly reduced physical activity and overeating arising from strict confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic will soon start to emerge. To reasonably anticipate major consequences according to the available evidence, we hereby review the literature for studies that have explored the health impacts of several weeks of a reduction in physical activity and daily step-count combined with modified eating habits. These studies identify as main metabolic consequences increases in insulin resistance, total body fat, abdominal fat and inflammatory cytokines. All these factors have been strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome, which in turn increases the risk of multiple chronic diseases. A plausible mechanism involved in these impacts could be a positive energy balance promoted by maintaining usual dietary intake while reducing energy expenditure. This means that just as calorie intake restriction could help mitigate the deleterious impacts of a bout of physical inactivity, overeating under conditions of home confinement is very likely to exacerbate these consequences. Moreover, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have been identified as potential risk factors for more severely ill patients with COVID-19. Thus, adequate control of metabolic disorders could be important to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19.
Nutrition of the COVID-19 patient in the intensive care unit (ICU): a practical guidance.
Critical care (London, England). 2020;(1):447
Five to 10% of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, i.e., with new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), are presenting with an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring urgent respiratory and hemodynamic support in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, nutrition is an important element of care. The nutritional assessment and the early nutritional care management of COVID-19 patients must be integrated into the overall therapeutic strategy. The international recommendations on nutrition in the ICU should be followed. Some specific issues about the nutrition of the COVID-19 patients in the ICU should be emphasized. We propose a flow chart and ten key issues for optimizing the nutrition management of COVID-19 patients in the ICU.
COVID-19 and Type 1 Diabetes: Concerns and Challenges.
Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis. 2020;(3):e2020033
Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, worldwide population's lifestyle has changed dramatically, causing psychosocial consequences. Patients presenting a preexisting chronic condition, as Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), are the ones suffering the most from this situation. Moreover, people affected by diabetes are the ones with the worst prognosis, if infected by SARS-CoV-2. We analyzed why patients with T1D were poorly represented between the subjects hospitalized for COVID-19 and why the cases of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) were fewer and more severe compared with the past years. Furthermore, literature has showed how patients of all ages with T1D did not experience a deterioration in their glucose control throughout the lockdown. Among other causes, this is also due to the surging use of telemedicine. Finally, we tried to understand how the coronavirus tropism for endocrine tissues could influence the future epidemiology of T1D, focusing on the effects they have on pancreatic β-cells.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2: A double-edged sword?
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 2020;(5):6017-6026
Human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) facilitates cellular entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2 as their common receptor. During infection, ACE2-expressing tissues become direct targets, resulting in serious pathological changes and progressive multiple organ failure or even death in severe cases. However, as an essential component of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), ACE2 confers protective effects in physiological circumstance, including maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis, fluid, and electrolyte balance. The absence of protective role of ACE2 leads to dysregulated RAS and thus acute changes under multiple pathological scenarios including SARS. This potentially shared mechanism may also be the molecular explanation for pathogenesis driven by SARS-CoV-2. We reasonably speculate several potential directions of clinical management including host-directed therapies aiming to restore dysregulated RAS caused by ACE2 deficiency. Enriched knowledge of ACE2 learned from SARS and COVID-19 outbreaks can provide, despite their inherent tragedy, informative clues for emerging pandemic preparedness.
Assessing the Elevation of Cardiac Biomarkers and the Severity of COVID-19 Infection: A Meta-analysis.
Journal of pharmacy & pharmaceutical sciences : a publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Societe canadienne des sciences pharmaceutiques. 2020;:396-405
UNLABELLED - Purpose: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 infection has become a global pandemic. The cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute cardiac injury with unknown pathophysiologic mechanism has become increasingly prevalent. However, it is not yet understood how the extent of cardiac injury differs with the intensity of viral infection. In the current study, we aimed to assess the association between elevated cardiac biomarkers and the severity of COVID-19 infection. METHODS A systematic literature search was performed across PubMed and Embase databases from December 1, 2019 to July 10, 2020, to identify studies that reported cardiac biomarkers of troponin (TnI) and creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) in patients with COVID-19. These studies compared non-severe patients with severe patients, or survivors with non-survivors or medical patients with critically ill patients. The data were extracted for TnI, CK-MB, N-terminal-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-BNP), D-dimer, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Wherever possible, the data were pooled for meta-analysis (Review Manager, RevMan. version 5.3) with standard or weighted mean or median difference and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS A total of 25 studies involving 5,626 patients were included in the present analysis. More severe COVID-19 infection was found to be associated with higher mean values of TnI (-0.54 [-0.72, -0.36]) (ng/mL), CK-MB (-1.55 [-2.23, -0.88]) (ng/mL) and (-4.75 [-13.31, 3.82]) (units/L), NT-BNP (-815.7 [-1073.97, -557.42]) (pg/mL), D-dimer (-1.4 [-2.04, -0.77]) (mcg/mL), and LDH (-176.59 [-224.11, -129.06]) (units/L), as well as CRP (-64.03 [-68.88, -59.19]) (mg/L) and IL-6 (-22.59 [-29.39, -15.79]) (pg/mL). CONCLUSIONS There is significant association between elevated cardiac biomarkers and the severity of COVID-19, which underlines the increased risk of acute cardiac injury with more severe viral infection. This highlights the need to understand the cardiac history among the COVID-19 patients during initial assessment and for monitoring.