Nutrition guidelines for critically ill adults admitted with COVID-19: Is there consensus?
Clinical nutrition ESPEN. 2021;:69-77
INTRODUCTION The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has overwhelmed hospital systems globally, resulting in less experienced staff caring for critically ill patients within the intensive care unit (ICU). Many guidelines have been developed to guide nutrition care. AIM: To identify key guidelines or practice recommendations for nutrition support practices in critically ill adults admitted with COVID-19, to describe similarities and differences between recommendations, and to discuss implications for clinical practice. METHODS A literature review was conducted to identify guidelines affiliated with or endorsed by international nutrition societies or dietetic associations which included recommendations for the nutritional management of critically ill adult patients with COVID-19. Data were extracted on pre-defined key aspects of nutritional care including nutrition prescription, delivery, monitoring and workforce recommendations, and key similarities and discrepancies, as well as implications for clinical practice were summarized. RESULTS Ten clinical practice guidelines were identified. Similar recommendations included: the use of high protein, volume restricted enteral formula delivered gastrically and commenced early in ICU and introduced gradually, while taking into consideration non-nutritional calories to avoid overfeeding. Specific advice for patients in the prone position was common, and non-intubated patients were highlighted as a population at high nutritional risk. Major discrepancies included the use of indirect calorimetry to guide energy targets and advice around using gastric residual volumes (GRVs) to monitor feeding tolerance. CONCLUSION Overall, common recommendations around formula type and route of feeding exist, with major discrepancies being around the use of indirect calorimetry and GRVs, which reflect international ICU nutrition guidelines.
How the Covid-19 epidemic is challenging our practice in clinical nutrition-feedback from the field.
European journal of clinical nutrition. 2021;(3):407-416
The viral epidemic caused by the new Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the new Coronavirus disease-2019 (Covid-19). Fifteen percent of the Covid-19 patients will require hospital stay, and 10% of them will need urgent respiratory and hemodynamic support in the intensive care unit (ICU). Covid-19 is an infectious disease characterized by inflammatory syndrome, itself leading to reduced food intake and increased muscle catabolism. Therefore Covid-19 patients are at high risk of being malnourished, making the prevention of malnutrition and the nutritional management key aspects of care. Urgent, brutal and massive arrivals of patients needing urgent respiratory care and artificial ventilation lead to the necessity to reorganize hospital care, wards and staff. In that context, nutritional screening and care may not be considered a priority. Moreover, at the start of the epidemic, due to mask and other protecting material shortage, the risk of healthcare givers contamination have led to not using enteral nutrition, although indicated, because nasogastric tube insertion is an aerosol-generating procedure. Clinical nutrition practice based on the international guidelines should therefore adapt and the use of degraded procedures could unfortunately be the only way. Based on the experience from the first weeks of the epidemic in France, we emphasize ten challenges for clinical nutrition practice. The objective is to bring objective answers to the most frequently met issues to help the clinical nutrition caregivers to promote nutritional care in the hospitalized Covid-19 patient. We propose a flow chart for optimizing the nutrition management of the Covid-19 patients in the non-ICU wards.
Early Enteral Nutrition in Mechanically Ventilated Patients With COVID-19 Infection.
Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 2021;(2):440-448
BACKGROUND Nutrition therapy is essential in critically ill adults. Little is known about appropriate nutrition therapy in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS This was a retrospective, observational study in adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection receiving mechanical ventilation. Data regarding patient demographics and nutrition therapy were collected. Patients that received enteral nutrition within 24 hours of starting mechanical ventilation were compared with patients starting enteral nutrition later. The primary outcome was inpatient length of stay. Propensity score matching was conducted to control for baseline differences in patient groups. RESULTS One hundred fifty-five patients were included in final analysis. Patients who received enteral nutrition within 24 hours received a significantly greater daily amount of calories (17.5 vs 15.2 kcal/kg, P = .015) and protein (1.04 vs 0.85 g/kg, P = .003). There was no difference in length of stay (18.5 vs 23.5 days, P = .37). The propensity score analysis included 100 patients. Following propensity scoring, significant differences in daily calorie (17.7 [4.6] vs 15.1 [5.1] kcal/kg/d, P = .009) and protein (1.03 [0.35] vs 0.86 [0.38] g/kg/d, P = .014) provision remained. No differences in length of stay or other outcomes were noted in the propensity score analysis. CONCLUSION Initiation of enteral nutrition within 24 hours was not associated with improved outcomes in mechanically ventilated adults with COVID-19. No harm was detected either. Future research should seek to clarify optimal timing of enteral nutrition initiation in patients with COVID-19 who require mechanical ventilation.
A Consensus Statement for the Management and Rehabilitation of Communication and Swallowing Function in the ICU: A Global Response to COVID-19.
Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2021;(5):835-842
OBJECTIVE To identify core practices for workforce management of communication and swallowing functions in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) positive patients within the intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN A modified Delphi methodology was used, with 3 electronic voting rounds. AGREE II and an adapted COVID-19 survey framework from physiotherapy were used to develop survey statements. Sixty-six statements pertaining to workforce planning and management of communication and swallowing function in the ICU were included. SETTING Electronic modified Delphi process. PARTICIPANTS Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) (N=35) from 6 continents representing 12 countries. INTERVENTIONS Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The main outcome was consensus agreement, defined a priori as ≥70% of participants with a mean Likert score ≥7.0 (11-point scale: 0=strongly disagree, 10=strongly agree). Prioritization rank order of statements in a fourth round was also conducted. RESULTS SLPs with a median of 15 years of ICU experience, working primarily in clinical (54%), academic (29%), or managerial positions (17%), completed all voting rounds. After the third round, 64 statements (97%) met criteria. Rank ordering identified issues of high importance. CONCLUSIONS A set of global consensus statements to facilitate planning and delivery of rehabilitative care for patients admitted to the ICU during the COVID-19 pandemic were agreed by an international expert SLP group. Statements focused on considerations for workforce preparation, resourcing and training, and the management of communication and swallowing functions. These statements support and provide direction for all members of the rehabilitation team to use for patients admitted to the ICU during a global pandemic.
Nutrition risk prevalence and nutrition care recommendations for hospitalized and critically-ill patients with COVID-19.
Clinical nutrition ESPEN. 2021;:38-49
BACKGROUND Nutritional status is an often-overlooked component in infectious disease severity. Hospitalized or critically ill patients are at higher risk of malnutrition, and rapid assessment and treatment of poor nutritional status can impact clinical outcomes. As it relates to the COVID-19 pandemic, an estimated 5% of these patients require admission to an ICU. Per clinical practice guidelines, nutrition therapy should be a core component of treatment regimens. On account of the urgent need for information relating to the nutritional support of these patients, clinical practice guidance was published based on current critical care guidelines. However, a growing body of literature is now available that may provide further direction for the nutritional status and support in COVID-19 patients. This review, intended for the health care community, provides a heretofore lacking in-depth discussion and summary of the current data on nutrition risk and assessment and clinical practice guidelines for medical nutrition therapy for hospitalized and critically ill patients with COVID-19.
Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy for Acute Kidney Injury in COVID-19 Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
Blood purification. 2021;(3):355-363
INTRODUCTION Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to COVID-19 frequently develop severe acute kidney injury (AKI). Although continuous renal replacement therapy is the standard of care for critically ill patients, prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) may be a feasible option. We aimed to describe the tolerability and security of PIRRT treatments in COVID-19 patients with ARDS who required mechanical ventilation and developed severe AKI. METHODS We prospectively analyzed patients who underwent PIRRT treatments at a COVID-19 reference hospital in Mexico City. Intradialytic hypotension was defined as a systolic blood pressure decrease of ≥20 mm Hg or an increase of 100% in vasopressor dose. RESULTS We identified 136 AKI cases (60.7%) in 224 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Among them, 21 (15%) underwent PIRRT (130 sessions) due to stage 3 AKI. The median age of the cohort was 49 (range 36-73) years, 17 (81%) were male, 7 (33%) had diabetes, and the median time between symptoms onset and PIRRT initiation was 12 (interquartile range [IQR] 7-14) days. The median of PIRRT procedures for each patient was 5 (IQR 4-9) sessions. In 108 (83%) PIRRT sessions, the total ultrafiltration goal was achieved. In 84 (65%) PIRRT procedures, there was a median increase in norepinephrine dose of +0.031 mcg/kg/min during PIRRT (IQR 0.00 to +0.07). Intradialytic hypotensive events occurred in 56 (43%) procedures. Fifteen (12%) PIRRT treatments were discontinued due to severe hypotension. Vasopressor treatment at PIRRT session onset (OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.4-28.0, p: 0.02) and a pre-PIRRT lactate ≥3.0 mmol/L (OR 4.63, 95% CI 1.3-12.8, p: 0.003) were independently and significantly associated with the risk of hypotension during PIRRT. During follow-up, 11 patients (52%) recovered from AKI and respiratory failure and 9 (43%) died. Several adaptations to our PIRRT protocol during the COVID-19 outbreak are presented. CONCLUSIONS PIRRT was feasible in the majority of COVID-19 patients with ARDS and severe AKI, despite frequent transitory intradialytic hypotensive episodes. PIRRT may represent an acceptable alternative of renal replacement therapy during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Does Route of Full Feeding Affect Outcome among Ventilated Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients: A Prospective Observational Study.
The outbreak of the new coronavirus strain SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) highlighted the need for appropriate feeding practices among critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). This study aimed to describe feeding practices of intubated COVID-19 patients during their second week of hospitalization in the First Department of Critical Care Medicine, Evaggelismos General Hospital, and evaluate potential associations with all cause 30-day mortality, length of hospital stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation. We enrolled adult intubated COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU between September 2020 and July 2021 and prospectively monitored until their hospital discharge. Of the 162 patients analyzed (52.8% men, 51.6% overweight/obese, mean age 63.2 ± 11.9 years), 27.2% of patients used parenteral nutrition, while the rest were fed enterally. By 30 days, 34.2% of the patients in the parenteral group had died compared to 32.7% of the patients in the enteral group (relative risk (RR) for the group receiving enteral nutrition = 0.97, 95% confidence interval = 0.88-1.06, p = 0.120). Those in the enteral group demonstrated a lower duration of hospital stay (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85-0.97, p = 0.036) as well as mechanical ventilation support (RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.89-0.99, p = 0.043). Enteral feeding during second week of ICU hospitalization may be associated with a shorter duration of hospitalization and stay in mechanical ventilation support among critically ill intubated patients with COVID-19.
Auxora versus standard of care for the treatment of severe or critical COVID-19 pneumonia: results from a randomized controlled trial.
Critical care (London, England). 2020;(1):502
BACKGROUND Calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel inhibitors stabilize the pulmonary endothelium and block proinflammatory cytokine release, potentially mitigating respiratory complications observed in patients with COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of Auxora, a novel, intravenously administered CRAC channel inhibitor, in adults with severe or critical COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS A randomized, controlled, open-label study of Auxora was conducted in adults with severe or critical COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive three doses of once-daily Auxora versus standard of care (SOC) alone. The primary objective was to assess the safety and tolerability of Auxora. Following FDA guidance, study enrollment was halted early to allow for transition to a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study. RESULTS In total, 17 patients with severe and three with critical COVID-19 pneumonia were randomized to Auxora and nine with severe and one with critical COVID-19 pneumonia to SOC. Similar proportions of patients receiving Auxora and SOC experienced ≥ 1 adverse event (75% versus 80%, respectively). Fewer patients receiving Auxora experienced serious adverse events versus SOC (30% versus 50%, respectively). Two patients (10%) receiving Auxora and two (20%) receiving SOC died during the 30 days after randomization. Among patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, the median time to recovery with Auxora was 5 days versus 12 days with SOC; the recovery rate ratio was 1.87 (95% CI, 0.72, 4.89). Invasive mechanical ventilation was needed in 18% of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia receiving Auxora versus 50% receiving SOC (absolute risk reduction = 32%; 95% CI, - 0.07, 0.71). Outcomes measured by an 8-point ordinal scale were significantly improved for patients receiving Auxora, especially for patients with a baseline PaO2/FiO2 = 101-200. CONCLUSIONS Auxora demonstrated a favorable safety profile in patients with severe or critical COVID-19 pneumonia and improved outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. These results, however, are limited by the open-label study design and small patient population resulting from the early cessation of enrollment in response to regulatory guidance. The impact of Auxora on respiratory complications in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia will be further assessed in a planned randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04345614 . Submitted on 7 April 2020.
Gastrointestinal Manifestations of COVID-19: Impact on Nutrition Practices.
Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 2020;(5):800-805
Although Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory disease, growing evidence shows that it can affect the digestive system and present with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Various nutrition societies have recently published their guidelines in context of the pandemic, and several points emphasize the impact of these GI manifestations on nutrition therapy. In patients with COVID-19, the normal intestinal mucosa can be disrupted by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, and this could result in GI symptoms and a compromise in nutrient absorption. Optimization of oral diet is still recommended. However, given the GI effects of COVID-19, a fraction of infected patients have poor appetite and would not be able to meet their nutrition goals with oral diet alone. For this at-risk group, which includes those who are critically ill, enteral nutrition is the preferred route to promote gut integrity and immune function. In carrying this out, nutrition support practices have been revised in such ways to mitigate viral transmission and adapt to the pandemic. All measures in the GI and nutrition care of patients are clustered to limit exposure of healthcare workers. Among patients admitted to intensive care units, a significant barrier is GI intolerance, and it appears to be exacerbated by significant GI involvement specific to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nevertheless, several countermeasures can be used to ease side effects. At the end of the spectrum in which intolerance persists, the threshold for switching to parenteral nutrition may need to be lowered.
[Nutritional management of the critically ill inpatient with COVID-19. A narrative review].
Nutricion hospitalaria. 2020;(3):622-630
INTRODUCTION The current COVID-19 pandemic mainly affects older people, those with obesity or other coexisting chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes and high blood pressure. It has been observed that about 20 % of patients will require hospitalization, and some of them will need the support of invasive mechanical ventilation in intensive care units. Nutritional status appears to be a relevant factor influencing the clinical outcome of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Several international guidelines have provided recommendations to ensure energy and protein intake in people with COVID-19, with safety measures to reduce the risk of infection in healthcare personnel. The purpose of this review is to analyze the main recommendations related to adequate nutritional management for critically ill patients with COVID-19 in order to improve their prognosis and clinical outcomes.