Coronavirus disease 2019 and type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity. 2021;(1):35-42
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a major comorbidity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but less is known about COVID-19 and type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Thus, our goal was to review the literature on COVID and T1DM. RECENT FINDINGS We identified 21 reports focusing on COVID-19 infections among patients with preexisting T1DM (n = 7), incident T1DM presentations during the COVID-19 quarantine (n = 6), and outpatient management of T1DM during the COVID-19 quarantine (n = 8). These studies showed that patients with preexisting T1DM and COVID-19 infection often present with hyperglycemia and/or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Although the risk of in-hospital mortality may be increased, hospitalization rates among patients with T1DM mirror that of the general population. The numbers of patients presenting with incident T1DM during COVID-19 quarantine have remained stable, but cases with severe DKA may have increased. COVID-19 quarantine has also impacted outpatient T1DM management and studies examining changes in glycemic control have shown mixed results. SUMMARY COVID-19 has important implications for patients with type 1 diabetes, but additional studies with larger numbers of patients and longer term follow-up are needed to confirm the early findings highlighted in this review.
COVID-19 and Type 1 Diabetes: Concerns and Challenges.
Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis. 2020;(3):e2020033
Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, worldwide population's lifestyle has changed dramatically, causing psychosocial consequences. Patients presenting a preexisting chronic condition, as Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), are the ones suffering the most from this situation. Moreover, people affected by diabetes are the ones with the worst prognosis, if infected by SARS-CoV-2. We analyzed why patients with T1D were poorly represented between the subjects hospitalized for COVID-19 and why the cases of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) were fewer and more severe compared with the past years. Furthermore, literature has showed how patients of all ages with T1D did not experience a deterioration in their glucose control throughout the lockdown. Among other causes, this is also due to the surging use of telemedicine. Finally, we tried to understand how the coronavirus tropism for endocrine tissues could influence the future epidemiology of T1D, focusing on the effects they have on pancreatic β-cells.
Impact of lockdown in COVID 19 on glycemic control in patients with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.
Diabetes & metabolic syndrome. 2020;(5):1213-1216
BACKGROUND AND AIMS COVID 19 is a novel pandemic affecting globally. Although no reliable data suggests that patients of well controlled Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) being at increased risk of becoming severely ill with SARS-CoV2, but lockdown may impact patients with T1DM requiring regular medications and follow up. Hence this study was planned to see the impact of lockdown on glycemic control in patients with T1DM. METHODS A cross sectional study was done in T1DM patients in whom a structured questionnaire was administered on follow up within 15 days after lockdown. Data regarding hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic episodes, Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), insulin dose missed, regular glucose monitoring, dietary compliance, physical activity, hospitalization during the phase of lockdown was taken. Average blood glucose and HbA1C of lockdown phase was compared with the readings of prelockdown phase. RESULTS Out of 52 patients, 36.5% had hyperglycemic and 15.3% had hypoglycemic episodes. Insulin dose was missed in 26.9%, glucose monitoring not done routinely in 36.5% and 17.4% were not diet compliant during lockdown. Average blood glucose during lockdown phase was 276.9 ± 64.7 mg/dl as compared to 212.3 ± 57.9 mg/dl during prelockdown phase. Mean HbA1c value of lockdown (10 ± 1.5%) which was much higher that of pre lockdown (8.8 ± 1.3%) and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION Glycemic control of T1DM patients has worsened mainly due to non availability of insulin/glucostrips during lockdown period. There is a need for preparedness in future so that complications can be minimised.