Changes in diet quality and food security among adults during the COVID-19-related early lockdown: results from NutriQuébec.
The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2021;(4):984-992
BACKGROUND The impact that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related early lockdown has had on dietary habits of the population and on food insecurity is unknown. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to document the change in diet quality and in food insecurity observed during the COVID-19-related early lockdown. We hypothesized that the lockdown was associated with a deterioration in overall diet quality and an increase in food insecurity. METHODS Data are from a COVID-19 subsample of NutriQuébec, a web-based cohort destined to study temporal changes in dietary habits among adults in Quebec, Canada. Participants completed questionnaires before (between June 2019 and February 2020) and during (April to May 2020) early lockdown, including a validated web-based 24-h recall (n = 853) and a questionnaire on food security (n = 922). Primary study outcomes were temporal changes in diet quality measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 and in the prevalence of food insecurity. RESULTS There was a small increase in the HEI-2015 during the COVID-19 early lockdown compared with baseline (+1.1 points; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.5), mostly due to small improvements in the intakes of whole grains, greens and beans, refined grains, total vegetables, total dairy, seafood and plant proteins, added sugar, and total protein subscores of the HEI-2015. Exploratory analyses suggested that individuals aged 18-29 y (+3.6 points; 95% CI: 2.4, 4.7), participants with lower education (+1.9 points; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.6), or with obesity (+3.8 points; 95% CI: 2.7, 4.8) showed particularly important increases in the HEI-2015. The prevalence of food insecurity was reduced from 3.8% at baseline to 1.0% during the early lockdown (prevalence ratio = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.94). CONCLUSIONS Contrary to our hypotheses, diet quality has slightly improved and prevalence of food insecurity was reduced in this sample of adults from Quebec during the COVID-19-related early lockdown. These results may be generalizable only to relatively healthy populations.
Changes in Dietary Patterns and Clinical Health Outcomes in Different Countries during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to an excess in community mortality across the globe. We review recent evidence on the clinical pathology of COVID-19, comorbidity factors, immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and factors influencing infection outcomes. The latter specifically includes diet and lifestyle factors during pandemic restrictions. We also cover the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through food products and the food chain, as well as virus persistence on different surfaces and in different environmental conditions, which were major public concerns during the initial days of the pandemic, but have since waned in public attention. We discuss useful measures to avoid the risk of SARS-CoV-2 spread through food, and approaches that may reduce the risk of contamination with the highly contagious virus. While hygienic protocols are required in food supply sectors, cleaning, disinfection, avoidance of cross-contamination across food categories, and foodstuffs at different stages of the manufacturing process are still particularly relevant because the virus persists at length on inert materials such as food packaging. Moreover, personal hygiene (frequent washing and disinfection), wearing gloves, and proper use of masks, clothes, and footwear dedicated to maintaining hygiene, provide on-site protections for food sector employees as well as supply chain intermediates and consumers. Finally, we emphasize the importance of following a healthy diet and maintaining a lifestyle that promotes physical well-being and supports healthy immune system function, especially when government movement restrictions ("lockdowns") are implemented.
Patient Nutrition and Probiotic Therapy in COVID-19: What Do We Know in 2021?
BACKGROUND The main nutritional consequences of COVID-19 include reduced food intake, hypercatabolism, and rapid muscle wasting. Some studies showed that malnutrition is a significant problem among patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 infection, and the outcome of patients with SARS-CoV-2 is strongly associated with their nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to collect useful information about the possible elements of nutritional and probiotic therapy in patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. METHODS A narrative review of the literature, including studies published up to 13 September 2021. RESULTS Probiotics may support patients by inhibiting the ACE2 receptor, i.e., the passage of the virus into the cell, and may also be effective in suppressing the immune response caused by the proinflammatory cytokine cascade. In patients' diet, it is crucial to ensure an adequate intake of micronutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids (at 2-4 g/d), selenium (300-450 μg/d) and zinc (30-50 mg/d), and vitamins A (900-700 µg/d), E (135 mg/d), D (20,000-50,000 IU), C (1-2 g/d), B6, and B12. Moreover, the daily calorie intake should amount to ≥1500-2000 with 75-100 g of protein. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the treatment of gut dysbiosis involving an adequate intake of prebiotic dietary fiber and probiotics could turn out to be an immensely helpful instrument for immunomodulation, both in COVID-19 patients and prophylactically in individuals with no history of infection.
Nutritional status, diet and viral respiratory infections: perspectives for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
The British journal of nutrition. 2021;(8):851-862
COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was recognised by the WHO as a pandemic in 2020. Host preparation to combat the virus is an important strategy to avoid COVID-19 severity. Thus, the relationship between eating habits, nutritional status and their effects on the immune response and further implications in viral respiratory infections is an important topic discussed in this review. Malnutrition causes the most diverse alterations in the immune system, suppressing of the immune response and increasing the susceptibility to infections such as SARS-CoV-2. On the other hand, obesity induces low-grade chronic inflammation caused by excess adiposity, which increases angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. It decreases the immune response favouring SARS-CoV-2 virulence and promoting respiratory distress syndrome. The present review highlights the importance of food choices considering their inflammatory effects, consequently increasing the viral susceptibility observed in malnutrition and obesity. Healthy eating habits, micronutrients, bioactive compounds and probiotics are strategies for COVID-19 prevention. Therefore, a diversified and balanced diet can contribute to the improvement of the immune response to viral infections such as COVID-19.
Coronavirus Disease 2019: Quick Diet and Nutrition Guide for Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.
Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation. 2021;(1):39-42
Considering the Covid-19 pandemic and that patients with CKD are included in a high-risk group, a quick nutrition guide for patients with CKD in all stages was developed, and it is available in Portuguese at https://bit.ly/2zfSjl0, in English at https://bit.ly/covid19ckd, in Spanish at https://bit.ly/guia enfermedad renal and in French at https://bit.ly/covid19maladierenale.
Impacts of the 2008 Great Recession on dietary intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity. 2021;(1):57
BACKGROUND The 2008 Great Recession significantly impacted economies and individuals globally, with potential impacts on food systems and dietary intake. We systematically reviewed evidence on the impact of the Great Recession on individuals' dietary intake globally and whether disadvantaged individuals were disproportionately affected. METHODS We searched seven databases and relevant grey literature through June 2020. Longitudinal quantitative studies with the 2008 recession as the exposure and any measure of dietary intake (energy intake, dietary quality, and food/macronutrient consumption) as the outcome were eligible for inclusion. Eligibility was independently assessed by two reviewers. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale was used for quality and risk of bias assessment. We undertook a random effects meta-analysis for changes in energy intake. Harvest plots were used to display and summarise study results for other outcomes. The study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42019135864). RESULTS Forty-one studies including 2.6 million people met our inclusion criteria and were heterogenous in both methods and results. Ten studies reported energy intake, 11 dietary quality, 34 food intake, and 13 macronutrient consumption. The Great Recession was associated with a mean reduction of 103.0 cal per adult equivalent per day (95% Confidence Interval: - 132.1, - 73.9) in high-income countries (5 studies) and an increase of 105.5 cal per adult per day (95% Confidence Interval: 72.8, 138.2) in middle-income countries (2 studies) following random effects meta-analysis. We found reductions in fruit and vegetable intake. We also found reductions in intake of fast food, sugary products, and soft drinks. Impacts on macronutrients and dietary quality were inconclusive, though suggestive of a decrease in dietary quality. The Great Recession had greater impacts on dietary intake for disadvantaged individuals. CONCLUSIONS The 2008 recession was associated with diverse impacts on diets. Calorie intake decreased in high income countries but increased in middle income countries. Fruit and vegetable consumption reduced, especially for more disadvantaged individuals, which may negatively affect health. Fast food, sugary products, and soft drink consumption also decreased which may confer health benefits. Implementing effective policies to mitigate adverse nutritional changes and encourage positive changes during the COVID-19 pandemic and other major economic shocks should be prioritised.
Can Probiotics and Diet Promote Beneficial Immune Modulation and Purine Control in Coronavirus Infection?
Infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus worldwide has led the World Health Organization to declare a COVID-19 pandemic. Because there is no cure or treatment for this virus, it is emergingly urgent to find effective and validated methods to prevent and treat COVID-19 infection. In this context, alternatives related to nutritional therapy might help to control the infection. This narrative review proposes the importance and role of probiotics and diet as adjunct alternatives among the therapies available for the treatment of this new coronavirus. This review discusses the relationship between intestinal purine metabolism and the use of Lactobacillus gasseri and low-purine diets, particularly in individuals with hyperuricemia, as adjuvant nutritional therapies to improve the immune system and weaken viral replication, assisting in the treatment of COVID-19. These might be promising alternatives, in addition to many others that involve adequate intake of vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds from food.