A certain proportion of docosahexaenoic acid tends to revert structural and dynamical effects of cholesterol on lipid membranes.
Pedroni, VI, Sierra, MB, Alarcón, LM, Verde, AR, Appignanesi, GA, Morini, MA
Biochimica et biophysica acta. Biomembranes. 2021;(6):183584
This work investigates how docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) modifies the effect of Cholesterol (Chol) on the structural and dynamical properties of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membrane. We employ low-cost and non-invasive methods: zeta potential (ZP), conductivity, density, and ultrasound velocity, complemented by molecular dynamics simulations. Our studies reveal that 30% of DHA added to the DPPC-Chol system tends to revert Chol action on a model lipid bilayer. Results obtained in this work shed light on the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids - particularly DHA - on lipid membranes, with potential preventive applications in many diseases, e.g. neuronal as, Alzheimer's disease, and viral, as Covid-19.
Potential benefits and risks of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to patients with COVID-19.
Rogero, MM, Leão, MC, Santana, TM, Pimentel, MVMB, Carlini, GCG, da Silveira, TFF, Gonçalves, RC, Castro, IA
Free radical biology & medicine. 2020;:190-199
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Studies have shown that infection, excessive coagulation, cytokine storm, leukopenia, lymphopenia, hypoxemia and oxidative stress have also been observed in critically ill Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients in addition to the onset symptoms. There are still no approved drugs or vaccines. Dietary supplements could possibly improve the patient's recovery. Omega-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), present an anti-inflammatory effect that could ameliorate some patients need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission. EPA and DHA replace arachidonic acid (ARA) in the phospholipid membranes. When oxidized by enzymes, EPA and DHA contribute to the synthesis of less inflammatory eicosanoids and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), such as resolvins, maresins and protectins. This reduces inflammation. In contrast, some studies have reported that EPA and DHA can make cell membranes more susceptible to non-enzymatic oxidation mediated by reactive oxygen species, leading to the formation of potentially toxic oxidation products and increasing the oxidative stress. Although the inflammatory resolution improved by EPA and DHA could contribute to the recovery of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation cannot be recommended before randomized and controlled trials are carried out.