Development of Lipid Nanoparticles for the Delivery of Macromolecules Based on the Molecular Design of pH-Sensitive Cationic Lipids.
Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin. 2021;(12):1141-1159
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Considerable efforts have been made on the development of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) for delivering of nucleic acids in LNP-based medicines, including a first-ever short interfering RNA (siRNA) medicine, Onpattro, and the mRNA vaccines against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which have been approved and are currently in use worldwide. The successful rational design of ionizable cationic lipids was a major breakthrough that dramatically increased delivery efficiency in this field. The LNPs would be expected to be useful as a platform technology for the delivery of various therapeutic modalities for genome editing and even for undiscovered therapeutic mechanisms. In this review, the current progress of my research, including the molecular design of pH-sensitive cationic lipids, their applications for various tissues and cell types, and for delivering various macromolecules, including siRNA, antisense oligonucleotide, mRNA, and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) system will be described. Mechanistic studies regarding relationships between the physicochemical properties of LNPs, drug delivery, and biosafety are also summarized. Furthermore, current issues that need to be addressed for next generation drug delivery systems are discussed.