Research Progress in Chinese Herbal Medicines for Treatment of Sepsis: Pharmacological Action, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacokinetics.
International journal of molecular sciences. 2021;(20)
Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection; the pathophysiology of sepsis is complex. The incidence of sepsis is steadily increasing, with worldwide mortality ranging between 30% and 50%. Current treatment approaches mainly rely on the timely and appropriate administration of antimicrobials and supportive therapies, but the search for pharmacotherapies modulating the host response has been unsuccessful. Chinese herbal medicines, i.e., Chinese patent medicines, Chinese herbal prescriptions, and single Chinese herbs, play an important role in the treatment of sepsis through multicomponent, multipathway, and multitargeting abilities and have been officially recommended for the management of COVID-19. Chinese herbal medicines have therapeutic actions promising for the treatment of sepsis; basic scientific research on these medicines is increasing. However, the material bases of most Chinese herbal medicines and their underlying mechanisms of action have not yet been fully elucidated. This review summarizes the current studies of Chinese herbal medicines used for the treatment of sepsis in terms of clinical efficacy and safety, pharmacological activity, phytochemistry, bioactive constituents, mechanisms of action, and pharmacokinetics, to provide an important foundation for clarifying the pathogenesis of sepsis and developing novel antisepsis drugs based on Chinese herbal medicines.
Contribution of traditional Chinese medicine to the treatment of COVID-19.
Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 2021;:153279
COVID-19 as an epidemic disease has spread across the planet since December 2019. The somber situation reminds each country to take actions in preventing the spreading of the virus. China as one of the early affected countries has been fighting against the novel coronavirus with the achievements of nearly 80,000 cured confirmed patients. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has made contributions to the treatment of COVID-19 because of its efficacy and comprehensive therapeutic theory. In this commentary, the advantage, etiology and mechanism of TCM therapy were discussed in the aspect of its functions in reducing the harms brought by COVID-19 to human beings.
Combination of Hua Shi Bai Du granule (Q-14) and standard care in the treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A single-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial.
Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 2021;:153671
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Hua Shi Bai Du Granule (Q-14) plus standard care compared with standard care alone in adults with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). STUDY DESIGN A single-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial. SETTING Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China, February 27 to March 27, 2020. PARTICIPANTS A total of 204 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were randomized into the treatment group and control group, consisting of 102 patients in each group. INTERVENTIONS In the treatment group, Q-14 was administered at 10 g (granules) twice daily for 14 days, plus standard care. In the control group, patients were provided standard care alone for 14 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The primary outcome was the conversion time for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral assay. Adverse events were analyzed in the safety population. RESULTS Among the 204 patients, 195 were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. A total of 149 patients (71 vs. 78 in the treatment and control groups, respectively) tested negative via the SARS-CoV-2 viral assay. There was no statistical significance in the conversion time between the treatment group and control group (Full analysis set: Median [interquartile range]: 10.00 [9.00-11.00] vs. 10.00 [9.00-11.00]; Mean rank: 67.92 vs. 81.44; P = 0.051). The recovery time for fever was shorter in the treatment group than in the control group. The disappearance rate of symptoms like cough, fatigue, and chest discomfort was significantly higher in the treatment group. In chest computed tomography (CT) examinations, the overall evaluation of chest CT examination after treatment compared with baseline showed that more patients improved in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in the other outcomes. CONCLUSION The combination of Q-14 and standard care for COVID-19 was useful for the improvement of symptoms (such as fever, cough, fatigue, and chest discomfort), but did not result in a significantly higher probability of negative conversion in the SARS-CoV-2 viral assay. No serious adverse events were observed. TRIAL REGISTRATION ChiCTR2000030288.
Traditional Chinese medicine shenhuang granule in patients with severe/critical COVID-19: A randomized controlled multicenter trial.
Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 2021;:153612
BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still a pandemic, with a high mortality rate in severe/critical cases. Therapies based on the Shenghuang Granule have proved helpful in viral infection and septic shock. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE The objective of the current study was to compare the efficacy and safety of the traditional Chinese medicine, Shenhuang Granule, with standard care in hospitalized patients with severe/critical COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS This was an open-label, multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial. At 4 medical centers, a total of 111 severe/critical patients were randomly assigned to receive Shenhuang Granule (SHG group) twice a day for 14 days, in addition to standard care, or to receive standard care alone (Control group). The maximal follow up time was 75 days. The clinical endpoint was clinical improvement and mortality. RESULTS 54 patients were assigned to the control group and 57 to the SHG group. The overall mortality was 75.9% (41/54) in the control group, and 38.6% (22/57) in the SHG group (p < 0.01 vs. control). The post hoc analysis showed that in the severe category, the mortality of the control group vs. the SHG group was 58.8% (10/17) vs. 5.3% (1/19) (p < 0.01); while in the critical category, it was 83.8% (31/37) vs. 55.3% (21/38) (p < 0.05). In the severe category, the mortality of patients who eventually received an invasive ventilator in the control vs. the SHG group was 58.8% (10/17) vs. 0 (0/19) (p < 0.01). Administration of SHG was associated with increased lymphocytes and decreased adverse events. CONCLUSION Shenhuang Granule is a promising integrative therapy for severe and critical COVID-19.
Inhibiting TGF-[Formula: see text] 1-Mediated Cellular Processes as an Effective Strategy for the Treatment of Pulmonary Fibrosis with Chinese Herbal Medicines.
The American journal of Chinese medicine. 2021;(8):1965-1999
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic and irreversible interstitial lung disease that even threatens the lives of some patients infected with COVID-19. PF is a multicellular pathological process, including the initial injuries of epithelial cells, recruitment of inflammatory cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, activation and differentiation of fibroblasts, etc. TGF-[Formula: see text]1 acts as a key effect factor that participates in these cellular processes of PF. Recently, much attention was paid to inhibiting TGF-[Formula: see text]1 mediated cell processes in the treatment of PF with Chinese herbal medicines (CHM), an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. Here, this review first summarized the effects of TGF-[Formula: see text]1 in different cellular processes of PF. Then, this review summarized the recent research on CHM (compounds, multi-components, single medicines and prescriptions) to directly and/or indirectly inhibit TGF-[Formula: see text]1 signaling (TLRs, PPARs, micrRNA, etc.) in PF. Most of the research focused on CHM natural compounds, including but not limited to alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and terpenes. After review, the research perspectives of CHM on TGF-[Formula: see text]1 inhibition in PF were further discussed. This review hopes that revealing the inhibiting effects of CHM on TGF-[Formula: see text]1-mediated cellular processes of PF can promote CHM to be better understood and utilized, thus transforming the therapeutic activities of CHM into practice.
Therapeutic options of TCM for organ injuries associated with COVID-19 and the underlying mechanism.
Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 2021;:153297
BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by infection with severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading rapidly throughout China and in other countries since the end of 2019. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared that the epidemic is a public health emergency of international concerns. The timely and appropriate measures for treating COVID-19 in China, which are inseparable from the contribution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), have won much praise of the world. PURPOSE This review aimed to summarize and discuss the essential role of TCM in protecting tissues from injuries associated with COVID-19, and accordingly to clarify the possible action mechanisms of TCM from the perspectives of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. METHODS Electronic databases such as Pubmed, ResearchGate, Science Direct, Web of Science, medRixv and Wiley were used to search scientific literatures. RESULTS The present review found that traditional Chinese herbs commonly used for the clinical treatment of organ damages caused by COVID-19, such as Scutellaria baicalensis, Salvia miltiorrhizaSalvia miltiorrhiza, and ginseng, could act on multiple signaling pathways involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. CONCLUSION TCM could protect COVID-19 patients from tissue injuries, a protection that might be, at least partially, attributed to the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of the TCM under investigation. This review provides evidence and support for clinical treatment and novel drug research using TCM.
Association between use of Qingfei Paidu Tang and mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: A national retrospective registry study.
Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 2021;:153531
BACKGROUND Qingfei Paidu Tang (QPT), a formula of traditional Chinese medicine, which was suggested to be able to ease symptoms in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has been recommended by clinical guidelines and widely used to treat COVID-19 in China. However, whether it decreases mortality remains unknown. PURPOSE We aimed to explore the association between QPT use and in-hospital mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN A retrospective study based on a real-world database was conducted. METHODS We identified patients consecutively hospitalized with COVID-19 in 15 hospitals from a national retrospective registry in China, from January through May 2020. Data on patients' characteristics, treatments, and outcomes were extracted from the electronic medical records. The association of QPT use with COVID-19 related mortality was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models based on propensity score analysis. RESULTS Of the 8939 patients included, 28.7% received QPT. The COVID-19 related mortality was 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8% to 1.7%) among the patients receiving QPT and 4.8% (95% CI 4.3% to 5.3%) among those not receiving QPT. After adjustment for patient characteristics and concomitant treatments, QPT use was associated with a relative reduction of 50% in-hospital COVID-19 related mortality (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.66 p < 0.001). This association was consistent across subgroups by sex and age. Meanwhile, the incidences of acute liver injury (8.9% [95% CI, 7.8% to 10.1%] vs. 9.9% [95% CI, 9.2% to 10.7%]; odds ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.81% to 1.14%], p = 0.658) and acute kidney injury (1.6% [95% CI, 1.2% to 2.2%] vs. 3.0% [95% CI, 2.6% to 3.5%]; odds ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.62 to 1.17], p = 0.318) were comparable between patients receiving QPT and those not receiving QPT. The major study limitations included that the study was an observational study based on real-world data rather than a randomized control trial, and the quality of data could be affected by the accuracy and completeness of medical records. CONCLUSIONS QPT was associated with a substantially lower risk of in-hospital mortality, without extra risk of acute liver injury or acute kidney injury among patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
Prevention and treatment of COVID-19 using Traditional Chinese Medicine: A review.
Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 2021;:153308
BACKGROUND A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) outbreak in more than 200 countries recently caused viral pneumonia that was extremely infectious and pathogenic. The Chinese government proposes that both Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine can be used in combination to treat pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV2, and TCM effectively provides continuous prevention and treatment. METHODS The present review analyzes and summarizes the prevention and treatment of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with TCM. A classified analysis of the efficacy and advantages of TCM for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 was performed, and the mechanisms of TCM in treating COVID-19 are summarized. RESULTS TCM is effective in preventing COVID-19, and medical staff can prevent an iatrogenic infection by taking a decoction made based on the principles of TCM. As of March 13, 2020, new cases of COVID-19 in China have decreased in number to single digits. TCM's curative effect was outstanding, with a national participation rate of over 90%. More than 70,000 people were cured of COVID-19 and discharged from the hospital. Only approximately 10,000 patients are currently being treated, and the total treatment time is approximately 2 months. CONCLUSIONS TCM is currently the best choice for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19, and it is expected that it will be promoted by countries around the world.
Updated pharmacological effects of Lonicerae japonicae flos, with a focus on its potential efficacy on coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).
Current opinion in pharmacology. 2021;:200-207
Lonicerae japonicae flos (LJF), known as Jin Yin Hua in Chinese, is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese herbs and nutraceuticals. Nowadays, LJF is broadly applied in an array of afflictions, such as fever, sore throat, flu infection, cough, and arthritis, with the action mechanism to be elucidated. Here, we strove to summarize the main phytochemical components of LJF and review its updated pharmacological effects, including inhibition of inflammation, pyrexia, viruses, and bacteria, immunoregulation, and protection of the liver, nervous system, and heart, with a focus on the potential efficacy of LJF on coronavirus disease-2019 based on network pharmacology so as to fully underpin the utilization of LJF as a medicinal herb and a favorable nutraceutical in daily life.
Efficacy and safety of Xiyanping injection in the treatment of COVID-19: A multicenter, prospective, open-label and randomized controlled trial.
Phytotherapy research : PTR. 2021;(8):4401-4410
Xiyanping (XYP) is a Chinese herbal medicine used in the clinic to treat respiratory infection and pneumonia. Recent evidence identified XYP as a potential inhibitor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, implying XYP as a possible treatment for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we conducted a prospective, multicenter, open-label and randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of XYP injection in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. We consecutively recruited 130 COVID-19 patients with mild to moderate symptoms from five study sites, and randomized them in 1:1 ratio to receive XYP injection in combination with standard therapy or receive standard supportive therapy alone. We found that XYP injection significantly reduced the time to cough relief, fever resolution and virus clearance. Less patients receiving XYP injection experienced disease progression to the severe stage during the treatment process. No severe adverse events were reported during the study. Taken together, XYP injection is safe and effective in improving the recovery of patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. However, further studies are warranted to evaluate the efficacy of XYP in an expanded cohort comprising COVID-19 patients at different disease stages.