Early Enteral Nutrition in Mechanically Ventilated Patients With COVID-19 Infection.
Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 2021;(2):440-448
BACKGROUND Nutrition therapy is essential in critically ill adults. Little is known about appropriate nutrition therapy in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS This was a retrospective, observational study in adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection receiving mechanical ventilation. Data regarding patient demographics and nutrition therapy were collected. Patients that received enteral nutrition within 24 hours of starting mechanical ventilation were compared with patients starting enteral nutrition later. The primary outcome was inpatient length of stay. Propensity score matching was conducted to control for baseline differences in patient groups. RESULTS One hundred fifty-five patients were included in final analysis. Patients who received enteral nutrition within 24 hours received a significantly greater daily amount of calories (17.5 vs 15.2 kcal/kg, P = .015) and protein (1.04 vs 0.85 g/kg, P = .003). There was no difference in length of stay (18.5 vs 23.5 days, P = .37). The propensity score analysis included 100 patients. Following propensity scoring, significant differences in daily calorie (17.7 [4.6] vs 15.1 [5.1] kcal/kg/d, P = .009) and protein (1.03 [0.35] vs 0.86 [0.38] g/kg/d, P = .014) provision remained. No differences in length of stay or other outcomes were noted in the propensity score analysis. CONCLUSION Initiation of enteral nutrition within 24 hours was not associated with improved outcomes in mechanically ventilated adults with COVID-19. No harm was detected either. Future research should seek to clarify optimal timing of enteral nutrition initiation in patients with COVID-19 who require mechanical ventilation.
Home medical nutrition during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic - A position paper.
Clinical nutrition ESPEN. 2020;:196-200
BACKGROUND The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a worldwide rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients fed enterally and parenterally at home are exposed to the same risk of infection as the general population, but more prone to complications than others. Therefore the guidance for care-givers and care-takers of these patients is needed. METHODS The literature search identified no relevant systematic reviews or studies on the subject. Therefore a panel of 21 experts from 13 home medical nutrition (HMN) centres in Poland was formed. Twenty-three key issues relevant to the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 in the HMN settings were identified and discussed. Some statements diverge from the available nutrition, surgical or ICU guidelines, some are based on the best available experience. Each topic was discussed and assessed during two Delphi rounds subsequently. Statements were graded strong or weak based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. RESULTS the panel issued 23 statements, all of them were graded strong. Two scored 85.71% agreement, eleven 95.23%, and ten 100%. The topics were: infection control, enrolment to HMN, logistics and patient information. CONCLUSIONS the position paper present pragmatic statements for HMN to be implemented in places without existing protocols for SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. They represent the state of knowledge available at the moment and may change should new evidence occurs.