Emerging agents for the treatment and prevention of stroke: progress in clinical trials.
Expert opinion on investigational drugs. 2021;(10):1025-1035
INTRODUCTION Recent years have witnessed unprecedented progress in stroke care, but unmet needs persist regarding the efficacy of acute treatment and secondary prevention. Novel approaches are being tested to enhance the efficacy of thrombolysis or provide neuroprotection in non-thrombolized patients. AREAS COVERED The current review highlights pharmaceutical agents under evaluation in clinical trials concerning the acute, subacute, and chronic phase post-stroke. We examine the evidence in favor of tenecteplase as an alternative thrombolytic drug to alteplase, nerinetide as a promising neuroprotective agent, and glibenclamide for reducing edema in malignant hemispheric infarction. We discuss the use of ticagrelor and the promising novel category of factor XI inhibitors in the subacute phase after stroke. We offer our insights on combined rivaroxaban and antiplatelet therapy, PCSK-9 inhibitors, and other non-statin hypolipidemic agents, as well as novel antidiabetic agents that have been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in the long-term. EXPERT OPINION Current approaches in stroke treatment and stroke prevention have already transformed stroke care from a linear one-for-all treatment paradigm to a more individualized approach that targets specific patient subgroups with novel pharmaceutical agents. This tendency enriches the therapeutic armamentarium with novel agents developed for specific stroke subgroups. ABBREVIATIONS IVT: intravenous thrombolysis; RCTs: randomized-controlled clinical trials; TNK: Tenecteplase; COVID-19: Coronavirus 2019 Disease; EXTEND-IA TNK The Tenecteplase versus Alteplase Before Endovascular Therapy for Ischemic Stroke trial; AIS: acute ischemic stroke; NNT: number needed to treat; MT: mechanical thrombectomy; sICH: symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage; mRS: modified Rankin Scale; AHA/ASA: American Heart Association/American Stroke Association; ESO: European Stroke Organization; NA-1: Nerinetide; ENACT Evaluating Neuroprotection in Aneurysm Coiling Therapy; CTA: CT angiography; TIA: transient ischemic attack; CHANCE Clopidogrel in High-risk patients with Acute Non-disabling Cerebrovascular Events; LOF: loss-of-function; PRINCE Platelet Reactivity in Acute Nondisabling Cerebrovascular Events; THALES Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated with Ticagrelor and ASA [acetylsalicylic acid] for Prevention of Stroke and Death; CHANCE-2: Clopidogrel With Aspirin in High-risk Patients With Acute Non-disabling Cerebrovascular Events II; FXI: Factor XI; PACIFIC-STROKE Program of Anticoagulation via Inhibition of FXIa by the Oral Compound BAY 2433334-NonCardioembolic Stroke study; COMPASS Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies; CANTOS-ICAD: Combination Antithrombotic Treatment for Prevention of Recurrent Ischemic Stroke in Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease; SAMMPRIS Stenting and Aggressive Medical Therapy for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis; WASID Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease; SPARCL Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TST: Treat Stroke to Target; IMPROVE-IT: Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial; PCSK9: proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9; FOURIER Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk; CLEAR Cholesterol Lowering via Bempedoic acid, an ACL-inhibiting Regimen; REDUCE-IT: Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA Intervention Trial; STRENGTH Outcomes Study to Assess STatin Residual Risk Reduction With EpaNova in HiGh CV Risk PatienTs With Hypertriglyceridemia; ACCORD Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes; ADVANCE Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation; VADT Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial; GLP-1R: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor; SGLT2: sodium-glucose cotransporter 2; CONVINCE COlchicine for preventioN of Vascular Inflammation in Non-CardioEmbolic stroke; PROBE Prospective Randomized Open-label Blinded Endpoint assessment.
Molecular Basis of the Therapeutical Potential of Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) and Clues to Its Anti-COVID-19 Utility.
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2021;(7)
The current COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection is enormously affecting the worldwide health and economy. In the wait for an effective global immunization, the development of a specific therapeutic protocol to treat COVID-19 patients is clearly necessary as a short-term solution of the problem. Drug repurposing and herbal medicine represent two of the most explored strategies for an anti-COVID-19 drug discovery. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) is a well-known culinary spice that has been used for centuries in folk medicine in many disorders. Interestingly, traditional medicines have used clove since ancient times to treat respiratory ailments, whilst clove ingredients show antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. Other interesting features are the clove antithrombotic, immunostimulatory, and antibacterial effects. Thus, in this review, we discuss the potential role of clove in the frame of anti-COVID-19 therapy, focusing on the antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic effects of clove and its molecular constituents described in the scientific literature.
Rationale for the Role of Heparin and Related GAG Antithrombotics in COVID-19 Infection.
Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis. 2021;:1076029620977702
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has focused attention on prevention, restriction and treatment methods that are acceptable worldwide. This means that they should be simple and inexpensive. This review examines the possible role of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) antithrombotics in the treatment of COVID-19. The pathophysiology of this disease reveals a complex interplay between the hemostatic and immune systems that can be readily disrupted by SARS-CoV-2. Some of the GAG antithrombotics also possess immune-modulatory actions and since they are relatively inexpensive they could play an important role in the management of COVID-19 and its complications.