Flavonoids as potential phytotherapeutics to combat cytokine storm in SARS-CoV-2.
Phytotherapy research : PTR. 2021;(8):4258-4283
Emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, COVID-19, has become the global panic since December 2019, which urges the global healthcare professionals to identify novel therapeutics to counteract this pandemic. So far, there is no approved treatment available to control this public health issue; however, a few antiviral agents and repurposed drugs support the patients under medical supervision by compromising their adverse effects, especially in emergency conditions. Only a few vaccines have been approved to date. In this context, several plant natural products-based research studies are evidenced to play a crucial role in immunomodulation that can prevent the chances of infection as well as combat the cytokine release storm (CRS) generated during COVID-19 infection. In this present review, we have focused on flavonoids, especially epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, hesperidin, naringenin, quercetin, rutin, luteolin, baicalin, diosmin, ge nistein, biochanin A, and silymarin, which can counteract the virus-mediated elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines leading to multiple organ failure. In addition, a comprehensive discussion on available in silico, in vitro, and in vivo findings with critical analysis has also been evaluated, which might pave the way for further development of phytotherapeutics to identify the potential lead candidatetoward effective and safe management of the SARS-CoV-2 disease.
Potential role of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2 induced diarrhea.
Tropical biomedicine. 2021;(3):360-365
COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, can lead to massive inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract causing severe clinical symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 infects lungs after binding its spike proteins with alveolar angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and it also triggers inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. SARS-CoV-2 invades the gastrointestinal tract by interacting with Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) that induces the expression of ACE2. The influx of ACE2 facilitates cellular binding of more SARS-CoV-2 and causes massive gastrointestinal inflammation leading to diarrhea. Diarrhea prior to COVID-19 infection or COVID-19-induced diarrhea reportedly ends up in a poor prognosis for the patient. Flavonoids are part of traditional remedies for gastrointestinal disorders. Preclinical studies show that flavonoids can prevent infectious diarrhea. Recent studies show flavonoids can inhibit the multiplication of SARS-CoV-2. In combination with vitamin D, flavonoids possibly activate nuclear factor erythroid-derived-2-related factor 2 that downregulates ACE2 expression in cells. We suggest that flavonoids have the potential to prevent SARS-CoV-2 induced diarrhea.