COVID-19 and Hartnup disease: an affair of intestinal amino acid malabsorption.
Eating and weight disorders : EWD. 2021;(5):1647-1651
Since the outbreak of COVID-19, clinicians have tried every effort to fight the disease, and multiple drugs have been proposed. However, no proven effective therapies currently exist, and different clinical phenotypes complicate the situation. In clinical practice, many severe or critically ill COVID-19 patients developed gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances, including vomiting, diarrhoea, or abdominal pain, even in the absence of cough and dyspnea. Understanding the mechanism of GI disturbances is warranted for exploring better clinical care for COVID-19 patients. With evidence collected from clinical studies on COVID-19 and basic research on a rare genetic disease (i.e., Hartnup disorder), we put forward a novel hypothesis to elaborate an effective nutritional therapy. We hypothesize that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, binding to intestinal angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, negatively regulates the absorption of neutral amino acids, and this could explain not only the GI, but also systemic disturbances in COVID-19. Amino acid supplements could be recommended.Level of evidence No level of evidence: Hypothesis article.
Hipótesis sobre las conexiones entre COVID-19 severo en niños y nutrición: una revisión narrativa.
Nutricion hospitalaria. 2021;(3):622-630
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Compared with adults, children with SARS-CoV-2 infection may have fewer and less severe symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms are commonly reported in children, sometimes as the only manifestation of the disease, and most often manifest as anorexia, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, or abdominal pain. Although most children have asymptomatic or mild disease, 10 % of those infected may experience serious or critical disease, or even death. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is a rare but serious condition recently reported in children with COVID-19. Studies indicate that children with obesity are at higher risk of developing severe COVID-19, and inflammation associated with obesity could be one of the factors that worsens COVID-19 symptoms due to an increased inflammatory response involving molecules such as interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and monocyte chemoattractant protein. On the other hand, evidence has been reported of a higher protein expression of ACE2 in the visceral adipose tissue of obese and malnourished humans, and this could be associated with complications and severity of COVID-19. Therefore, regulation of the intake of macronutrients or micronutrients could be used as a strategy to reduce the consequences of COVID-19. Diet in general and bioactive compounds could play an important role in the prevention of the inflammatory cascade. The micronutrients with the most evidence suggesting a role in immune support are vitamins C and D, zinc, and polyphenols.
Probiotics: Versatile Bioactive Components in Promoting Human Health.
Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania). 2020;(9)
The positive impact of probiotic strains on human health has become more evident than ever before. Often delivered through food, dietary products, supplements, and drugs, different legislations for safety and efficacy issues have been prepared. Furthermore, regulatory agencies have addressed various approaches toward these products, whether they authorize claims mentioning a disease's diagnosis, prevention, or treatment. Due to the diversity of bacteria and yeast strains, strict approaches have been designed to assess for side effects and post-market surveillance. One of the most essential delivery systems of probiotics is within food, due to the great beneficial health effects of this system compared to pharmaceutical products and also due to the increasing importance of food and nutrition. Modern lifestyle or various diseases lead to an imbalance of the intestinal flora. Nonetheless, as the amount of probiotic use needs accurate calculations, different factors should also be taken into consideration. One of the novelties of this review is the presentation of the beneficial effects of the administration of probiotics as a potential adjuvant therapy in COVID-19. Thus, this paper provides an integrative overview of different aspects of probiotics, from human health care applications to safety, quality, and control.
Gastrointestinal manifestations and nutritional therapy during COVID-19 pandemic: a practical guide for pediatricians.
Einstein (Sao Paulo, Brazil). 2020;:eRW5774
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has spread globally in pandemic proportions. Accumulative evidence suggests SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted through the digestive system, the so-called fecal-oral route of transmission, and may induce several gastrointestinal manifestations. MEDLINE® and Embase databases were extensively searched for major clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal involvement in children and adolescents with COVID-19 reported in medical literature, and for nutritional therapy-related data. Findings and recommendations were pragmatically described to facilitate overall pediatric approach. A total of 196 studies addressing gastrointestinal or nutritional aspects associated with the global COVID-19 pandemic were found. Of these, only 17 focused specifically on pediatric patients with regard to aforementioned gastrointestinal or nutritional aspects. Most articles were descriptive and six addressed guidelines, established protocols, or expert opinions. Children and adolescents with gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, should be seriously suspected of COVID-19. Gastrointestinal signs and symptoms may occur in 3% to 79% of children, adolescents and adults with COVID-19, and are more common in severe cases. These include diarrhea (2% to 50%), anorexia (40% to 50%), vomiting (4% to 67%), nausea (1% to 30%), abdominal pain (2% to 6%) and gastrointestinal bleeding (4% to 14%). Patients with inflammatory bowel disease or chronic liver disease are not at greater risk of infection by SARS-CoV-2 relative to the general population. Nutritional support plays an important role in treatment of pediatric patients, particularly those with severe or critical forms of the disease. The digestive system may be a potential route of COVID-19 transmission. Further research is needed to determine whether the fecal-oral route may be involved in viral spread. Nutritional therapy is vital to prevent malnutrition and sarcopenia in severe cases.