The microbiota-mediated dietary and nutritional interventions for COVID-19.
Gasmi, A, Tippairote, T, Mujawdiya, PK, Peana, M, Menzel, A, Dadar, M, Benahmed, AG, Bjørklund, G
Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.). 2021;:108725
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Worldwide, scientists are looking for specific treatment for COVID-19. Apart from the antiviral approach, the interventions to support healthy immune responses to the virus are feasible through diet, nutrition, and lifestyle approaches. This narrative review explores the recent studies on dietary, nutritional, and lifestyle interventions that influence the microbiota-mediated immunomodulatory effects against viral infections. Cumulative studies reported that the airway microbiota and SARS-CoV-2 leverage each other and determine the pathogen-microbiota-host responses. Cigarette smoking can disrupt microbiota abundance. The composition and diversification of intestinal microbiota influence the airway microbiota and the innate and adaptive immunity, which require supports from the balance of macro- and micronutrients from the diet. Colorful vegetables supplied fermentable prebiotics and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant phytonutrients. Fermented foods and beverages support intestinal microbiota. In sensitive individuals, the avoidance of the high immunoreactive food antigens contributes to antiviral immunity. This review suggests associations between airway and intestinal microbiota, antiviral host immunity, and the influences of dietary, nutritional, and lifestyle interventions to prevent the clinical course toward severe COVID-19.
The microbiome in atopic patients and potential modifications in the context of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic.
Lee, E, Hong, SJ
Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology. 2021;(3):245-251
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Data regarding the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on host-microbiome alteration and subsequent effects on susceptibility and clinical course of COVID-19, especially in atopic patients, are currently limited. Here, we review the studies regarding the microbiome of atopic patients with other respiratory infections and discuss the potential role of probiotics as therapeutic targets for COVID-19 to decrease its susceptibility and severity of COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS Respiratory tract virus infection affects the gut and airway microbiome structures and host's immune function. Diverse factors in atopic diseases affect the airway and gut microbiome structures, which are expected to negatively influence host health. However, response to respiratory virus infection in atopic hosts depends on the preexisting microbiome and immune responses. This may explain the inconclusiveness of the effects of COVID-19 on the susceptibility, morbidity, and mortality of patients with atopic diseases. Beneficial probiotics may be a therapeutic adjuvant in COVID-19 infection as the beneficial microbiome can decrease the viral load in the early phase of respiratory virus infection and improve the morbidity and mortality. SUMMARY Application of probiotics can be a potential adjuvant treatment in respiratory virus infection to improve host immune responses and disturbed microbiome structures in atopic patients. Further related studies involving COVID-19 are warranted in near future.
Targeting Microbiome: An Alternative Strategy for Fighting SARS-CoV-2 Infection.
Spagnolello, O, Pinacchio, C, Santinelli, L, Vassalini, P, Innocenti, GP, De Girolamo, G, Fabris, S, Giovanetti, M, Angeletti, S, Russo, A, et al
Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are the predominant clinical manifestations of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Infecting intestinal epithelial cells, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 may impact on host's microbiota and gut inflammation. It is well established that an imbalanced intestinal microbiome can affect pulmonary function, modulating the host immune response ("gut-lung axis"). While effective vaccines and targeted drugs are being tested, alternative pathophysiology-based options to prevent and treat COVID-19 infection must be considered on top of the limited evidence-based therapy currently available. Addressing intestinal dysbiosis with a probiotic supplement may, therefore, be a sensible option to be evaluated, in addition to current best available medical treatments. Herein, we summed up pathophysiologic assumptions and current evidence regarding bacteriotherapy administration in preventing and treating COVID-19 pneumonia.
Covid 19: Diet Composition and Health.
Skrajnowska, D, Brumer, M, Kankowska, S, Matysek, M, Miazio, N, Bobrowska-Korczak, B
The virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The cumulative number of cases reported globally is now nearly 197 million and the number of cumulative deaths is 4.2 million (26 July to 1 August 2021). Currently we are focusing primarily on keeping a safe distance from others, washing our hands, and wearing masks, and the question of the effects of diet and diet-dependent risk factors remains outside the center of attention. Nevertheless, numerous studies indicate that diet can play an important role in the course of COVID-19. In this paper, based on select scientific reports, we discuss the structure and replication cycle of SARS-CoV-2, risk factors, dietary standards for sick patients, and the roles of the microbiome and dietary components supporting the immune system in preventing COVID-19.
Probiotics in Medicine: A Long Debate.
Stavropoulou, E, Bezirtzoglou, E
Frontiers in immunology. 2020;:2192
During the last years probiotics gained the attention of clinicians for their use in the prevention and treatment of multiple diseases. Probiotics main mechanisms of action include enhanced mucosal barrier function, direct antagonism with pathogens, inhibition of bacterial adherence and invasion capacity in the intestinal epithelium, boosting of the immune system and regulation of the central nervous system. It is accepted that there is a mutual communication between the gut microbiota and the liver, the so-called "microbiota-gut-liver axis" as well as a reciprocal communication between the intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system through the "microbiota-gut-brain axis." Moreover, recently the "gut-lung axis" in bacterial and viral infections is considerably discussed for bacterial and viral infections, as the intestinal microbiota amplifies the alveolar macrophage activity having a protective role in the host defense against pneumonia. The importance of the normal human intestinal microbiota is recognized in the preservation of health. Disease states such as, infections, autoimmune conditions, allergy and other may occur when the intestinal balance is disturbed. Probiotics seem to be a promising approach to prevent and even reduce the symptoms of such clinical states as an adjuvant therapy by preserving the balance of the normal intestinal microbiota and improving the immune system. The present review states globally all different disorders in which probiotics can be given. To date, Stronger data in favor of their clinical use are provided in the prevention of gastrointestinal disorders, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, allergy and respiratory infections. We hereby discuss the role of probiotics in the reduction of the respiratory infection symptoms and we focus on the possibility to use them as an adjuvant to the therapeutic approach of the pandemic COVID-19. Nevertheless, it is accepted by the scientific community that more clinical studies should be undertaken in large samples of diseased populations so that the assessment of their therapeutic potential provide us with strong evidence for their efficacy and safety in clinical use.