The effect of glutamine supplementation on serum levels of some inflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and appetite in COVID-19 patients: a case-control study.
BACKGROUND Malnutrition is seen in COVID-19 patients, and reducing malnutrition with appropriate therapies may improve these patients' health. This case-control study aimed to assess and compare serum levels of some inflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and appetite in COVID-19 patients with respiratory infections that receive glutamine treatment with a control group. METHODS In this study, patients who consented to use glutamine were considered as the case group and other patients who did not use glutamine were considered as a control group. Two hundred twenty-two COVID-19 patients (51.2 ± 6.7) using L-Glutamine and 230 COVID-19 patients (51.3 ± 8.2) with similar age, gender, and clinical status, as the control group, were included in the study. For 5 days, the case group consumed 10 g of glutamine supplement three times per day. At the end of the 5 days, blood samples were taken again to test for serum levels of IL1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, malondialdehyde, and total antioxidant capacity, then all data were analyzed. RESULTS Serum levels of β-1 interleukin, tumor necrosis factor-α and hs-CRP were significantly reduced with five days of glutamine supplementation (p < 0.05), and patients' appetite during 5 days of glutamine supplementation compared with the control group had a significant increase (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION Glutamine supplementation in COVID-19 patients with respiratory infection significantly reduces serum levels of interleukin-1 β, hs-CRP, and tumor necrosis factor-α and significantly increases appetite, so glutamine supplementation may be useful for COVID-19 patients in the hospital.
Vitamin D, zinc and glutamine: Synergistic action with OncoTherad immunomodulator in interferon signaling and COVID‑19 (Review).
International journal of molecular medicine. 2021;(3)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), was identified in December, 2019 in Wuhan, China. Since then, it has continued to spread rapidly in numerous countries, while the search for effective therapeutic options persists. Coronaviruses, including SARS‑CoV‑2, are known to suppress and evade the antiviral responses of the host organism mediated by interferon (IFN), a family of cytokines that plays an important role in antiviral defenses associated with innate immunity, and has been used therapeutically for chronic viral diseases and cancer. On the other hand, OncoTherad, a safe and effective immunotherapeutic agent in the treatment of non‑muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), increases IFN signaling and has been shown to be a promising therapeutic approach for COVID‑19 in a case report that described the rapid recovery of a 78‑year‑old patient with NMIBC with comorbidities. The present review discusses the possible synergistic action of OncoTherad with vitamin D, zinc and glutamine, nutrients that have been shown to facilitate immune responses mediated by IFN signaling, as well as the potential of this combination as a therapeutic option for COVID‑19.