Association of physical activity levels and the prevalence of COVID-19-associated hospitalization.
Journal of science and medicine in sport. 2021;(9):913-918
OBJECTIVES We compared physical activity levels before the outbreak and quarantine measures with COVID-19-associated hospitalization prevalence in surviving patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, we investigated the association of physical activity levels with symptoms of the disease, length of hospital stay, and mechanical ventilation. DESIGN Observational, cross-sectional. METHODS Between June 2020 and August 2020, we invited Brazilian survivors and fully recovered patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 to respond to an online questionnaire. We shared the electronic link to the questionnaire on the internet. We collected data about clinical outcomes (symptoms, medications, hospitalization, and length of hospital stay) and cofactors, such as age, sex, ethnicity, preexisting diseases, socioeconomic and educational, and physical activity levels using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ short version). RESULTS Out of 938 patients, 91 (9.7%) were hospitalized due to COVID-19. In a univariate analysis, sex, age, and BMI were all associated with hospitalizations due to COVID-19. Men had a higher prevalence of hospitalization (66.6%, p = 0.013). Patients older than 65 years, obese, and with preexisting disease had a higher prevalence of COVID-19-related hospitalizations. In a multivariate regression model, performance of at least 150 min/wk (moderate) and/or 75 min/wk (vigorous) physical activity was associated with a lower prevalence of hospitalizations after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and preexisting diseases (PR = 0.657; p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS Sufficient physical activity levels were associated with a lower prevalence of COVID-19-related hospitalizations. Performing at least 150 min a week of moderate-intensity, or 75 min a week of vigorous-intensity physical activity was associated with 34.3% reduction in prevalence.
Inverse Relationship of Maximal Exercise Capacity to Hospitalization Secondary to Coronavirus Disease 2019.
Mayo Clinic proceedings. 2021;(1):32-39
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between maximal exercise capacity measured before severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and hospitalization due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS We identified patients (≥18 years) who completed a clinically indicated exercise stress test between January 1, 2016, and February 29, 2020, and had a test for SARS-CoV-2 (ie, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test) between February 29, 2020, and May 30, 2020. Maximal exercise capacity was quantified in metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the likelihood that hospitalization secondary to COVID-19 is related to peak METs, with adjustment for 13 covariates previously identified as associated with higher risk for severe illness from COVID-19. RESULTS We identified 246 patients (age, 59±12 years; 42% male; 75% black race) who had an exercise test and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among these, 89 (36%) were hospitalized. Peak METs were significantly lower (P<.001) among patients who were hospitalized (6.7±2.8) compared with those not hospitalized (8.0±2.4). Peak METs were inversely associated with the likelihood of hospitalization in unadjusted (odds ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.92) and adjusted models (odds ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.76-0.99). CONCLUSION Maximal exercise capacity is independently and inversely associated with the likelihood of hospitalization due to COVID-19. These data further support the important relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and health outcomes. Future studies are needed to determine whether improving maximal exercise capacity is associated with lower risk of complications due to viral infections, such as COVID-19.