Risk of COVID 19 in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases compared to a control population.
Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver. 2021;(3):263-270
BACKGROUND It is unclear whether patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of COVID-19. OBJECTIVES This observational study compared the prevalence of COVID-19 symptoms, diagnosis and hospitalization in IBD patients with a control population with non-inflammatory bowel disorders. METHODS This multicentre study, included 2733 outpatients (1397 IBD patients and 1336 controls), from eight major gastrointestinal centres in Lombardy, Italy. Patients were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire regarding demographic, historical and clinical features over the previous 6 weeks. The prevalence of COVID-19 symptoms, diagnosis and hospitalization for COVID-19 was assessed. RESULTS 1810 patients (64%) responded to the questionnaire (941 IBD patients and 869 controls). IBD patients were significantly younger and of male sex than controls. NSAID use and smoking were more frequent in controls. IBD patients were more likely treated with vitamin-D and vaccinated for influenza. Highly probable COVID-19 on the basis of symptoms and signs was less frequent in the IBD group (3.8% vs 6.3%; OR:0.45, 95%CI:0.28-0.75). IBD patients had a lower rate of nasopharyngeal swab-PCR confirmed diagnosis (0.2% vs 1.2%; OR:0.14, 95%CI:0.03-0.67). There was no difference in hospitalization between the groups (0.1% vs 0.6%; OR:0.14, 95%CI:0.02-1.17). CONCLUSION IBD patients do not have an increased risk of COVID-19 specific symptoms or more severe disease compared with a control group of gastroenterology patients.
The Effect of Vitamin C on Pathological Parameters and Survival Duration of Critically Ill Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
Frontiers in immunology. 2021;:717816
Introduction: Vitamin C has been reported to have beneficial effects on patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin C supplementation on pathological parameters and survival duration of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 120 hospitalized critically ill patients infected with COVID-19. The intervention group (n = 31) received one capsule of 500 mg of vitamin C daily for 14 days. The control group (n = 69) received the same nutrition except for vitamin C supplements. Measurement of pathological and biochemical parameters was performed at baseline and after 2 weeks of the intervention. Results: Following 2 weeks of vitamin C supplementation, the level of serum K was significantly lower in the patients compared with the control group (3.93 vs. 4.21 mEq/L, p < 0.01). Vitamin C supplementation resulted in a higher mean survival duration compared with that of the control group (8 vs. 4 days, p < 0.01). There was a linear association between the number of days of vitamin C intake and survival duration (B = 1.66, p < 0.001). The vitamin C supplementation had no effect on blood glucose, mean arterial pressure, arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), kidney function, cell blood count (CBC), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (Plt), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), albumin, hematocrit (Hct), and other serum electrolytes including sodium (Na), calcium, and phosphorus (P). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the potential of vitamin C supplementation in enhancing the survival duration of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Clinical Trial Registration: https://www.irct.ir/trial/55074, identifier IRCT20151226025699N5.
Diabetic retinopathy is independently associated with increased risk of intubation: A single centre cohort study of patients with diabetes hospitalised with COVID-19.
Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2021;:108529
In our study of 187 patients with diabetes hospitalised with COVID-19 we observed a more than 5 fold increased risk of intubation in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms that explain the associations between retinopathy and other indices of microangiopathy with severe COVID-19.
Retrospective Study of Outcomes and Hospitalization Rates of Patients in Italy with a Confirmed Diagnosis of Early COVID-19 and Treated at Home Within 3 Days or After 3 Days of Symptom Onset with Prescribed and Non-Prescribed Treatments Between November 2020 and August 2021.
Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. 2021;:e935379
BACKGROUND This retrospective study aimed to investigate outcomes and hospitalization rates in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of early COVID-19 treated at home with prescribed and non-prescribed treatments. MATERIAL AND METHODS The medical records of a cohort of 158 Italian patients with early COVID-19 treated at home were analyzed. Treatments consisted of indomethacin, low-dose aspirin, omeprazole, and a flavonoid-based food supplement, plus azithromycin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and betamethasone as needed. The association of treatment timeliness and of clinical variables with the duration of symptoms and with the risk of hospitalization was evaluated by logistic regression. RESULTS Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n=85) was treated at the earliest possible time (<72 h from onset of symptoms), and group 2 (n=73) was treated >72 h after the onset of symptoms. Clinical severity at the beginning of treatment was similar in the 2 groups. In group 1, symptom duration was shorter than in group 2 (median 6.0 days vs 13.0 days, P<0.001) and no hospitalizations occurred, compared with 19.18% hospitalizations in group 2. One patient in group 1 developed chest X-ray alterations and 2 patients experienced an increase in D-dimer levels, compared with 30 and 22 patients, respectively, in group 2. The main factor determining the duration of symptoms and the risk of hospitalization was the delay in starting therapy (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS This real-world study of patients in the community showed that early diagnosis and early supportive patient management reduced the severity of COVID-19 and reduced the rate of hospitalization.
A Risk Score to Predict Admission to the Intensive Care Unit in Patients with COVID-19: the ABC-GOALS score.
Salud publica de Mexico. 2020;(1, ene-feb):1-11
OBJECTIVE To develop a score to predict the need for ICU admission in COVID-19. METHODS We assessed patients admitted to a COVID-19 center in Mexico. Patients were segregated into a group that required ICU admission, and a group that never required ICU admission. By logistic regression, we derived predictive models including clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings. The ABC-GOALS was constructed and compared to other scores. RESULTS We included 329 and 240 patients in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. One-hundred-fifteen patients from each cohort required ICU admission. The clinical (ABC-GOALSc), clinical+laboratory (ABC-GOALScl), clinical+laboratory+image (ABC-GOALSclx) models area under the curve were 0.79 (95%CI=0.74-0.83) and 0.77 (95%CI=0.71-0.83), 0.86 (95%CI=0.82-0.90) and 0.87 (95%CI=0.83-0.92), 0.88 (95%CI=0.84-0.92) and 0.86 (95%CI=0.81-0.90), in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. The ABC-GOALScl and ABC-GOALSclx outperformed other COVID-19 and pneumonia predictive scores. CONCLUSION ABC-GOALS is a tool to timely predict the need for admission to ICU in COVID-19.
Correlation between the variables collected at admission and progression to severe cases during hospitalization among patients with COVID-19 in Chongqing.
Journal of medical virology. 2020;(11):2616-2622
Mortality is high among severe patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected disease (COVID-19). Early prediction of progression to severe cases is needed. We retrospectively collected patients with COVID-19 in two hospital of Chongqing from 1st January to 29th February 2020. At admission, we collected the demographics and laboratory tests to predict whether the patient would progress to severe cases in hospitalization. Severe case was confirmed when one of the following criteria occurred: (a) dyspnea, respiratory rate ≥30 breaths/min, (b) blood oxygen saturation ≤93%, and (c) PaO2 /FiO2 ≤ 300 mm Hg. At admission, 348 mild cases were enrolled in this study. Of them, 20 (5.7%) patients progressed to severe cases after median 4.0 days (interquartile range: 2.3-6.0). Pulmonary inflammation index, platelet counts, sodium, C-reactive protein, prealbumin, and PaCO2 showed good distinguishing power to predict progression to severe cases (each area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics [AUC] ≥ 0.8). Age, heart rate, chlorine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, procalcitonin, creatine kinase, pH, CD3 counts, and CD4 counts showed moderate distinguishing power (each AUC between 0.7-0.8). And potassium, creatinine, temperature, and D-dimer showed mild distinguishing power (each AUC between 0.6-0.7). In addition, higher C-reactive protein was associated with shorter time to progress to severe cases (r = -0.62). Several easily obtained variables at admission are associated with progression to severe cases during hospitalization. These variables provide a reference for the medical staffs when they manage the patients with COVID-19.
"Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical study".
The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. 2020;:105751
OBJECTIVE The vitamin D endocrine system may have a variety of actions on cells and tissues involved in COVID-19 progression especially by decreasing the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Calcifediol can rapidly increase serum 25OHD concentration. We therefore evaluated the effect of calcifediol treatment, on Intensive Care Unit Admission and Mortality rate among Spanish patients hospitalized for COVID-19. DESIGN Parallel pilot randomized open label, double-masked clinical trial. SETTING University hospital setting (Reina Sofia University Hospital, Córdoba Spain.) PARTICIPANTS 76 consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection, clinical picture of acute respiratory infection, confirmed by a radiographic pattern of viral pneumonia and by a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR with CURB65 severity scale (recommending hospital admission in case of total score > 1). PROCEDURES All hospitalized patients received as best available therapy the same standard care, (per hospital protocol), of a combination of hydroxychloroquine (400 mg every 12 h on the first day, and 200 mg every 12 h for the following 5 days), azithromycin (500 mg orally for 5 days. Eligible patients were allocated at a 2 calcifediol:1 no calcifediol ratio through electronic randomization on the day of admission to take oral calcifediol (0.532 mg), or not. Patients in the calcifediol treatment group continued with oral calcifediol (0.266 mg) on day 3 and 7, and then weekly until discharge or ICU admission. Outcomes of effectiveness included rate of ICU admission and deaths. RESULTS Of 50 patients treated with calcifediol, one required admission to the ICU (2%), while of 26 untreated patients, 13 required admission (50 %) p value X2 Fischer test p < 0.001. Univariate Risk Estimate Odds Ratio for ICU in patients with Calcifediol treatment versus without Calcifediol treatment: 0.02 (95 %CI 0.002-0.17). Multivariate Risk Estimate Odds Ratio for ICU in patients with Calcifediol treatment vs Without Calcifediol treatment ICU (adjusting by Hypertension and T2DM): 0.03 (95 %CI: 0.003-0.25). Of the patients treated with calcifediol, none died, and all were discharged, without complications. The 13 patients not treated with calcifediol, who were not admitted to the ICU, were discharged. Of the 13 patients admitted to the ICU, two died and the remaining 11 were discharged. CONCLUSION Our pilot study demonstrated that administration of a high dose of Calcifediol or 25-hydroxyvitamin D, a main metabolite of vitamin D endocrine system, significantly reduced the need for ICU treatment of patients requiring hospitalization due to proven COVID-19. Calcifediol seems to be able to reduce severity of the disease, but larger trials with groups properly matched will be required to show a definitive answer.