Understanding Individual SARS-CoV-2 Proteins for Targeted Drug Development against COVID-19.
Molecular and cellular biology. 2021;(9):e0018521
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic, responsible for millions of deaths globally. Even with effective vaccines, SARS-CoV-2 will likely maintain a hold in the human population through gaps in efficacy, percent vaccinated, and arising new strains. Therefore, understanding how SARS-CoV-2 causes widespread tissue damage and the development of targeted pharmacological treatments will be critical in fighting this virus and preparing for future outbreaks. Herein, we summarize the progress made thus far by using in vitro or in vivo models to investigate individual SARS-CoV-2 proteins and their pathogenic mechanisms. We have grouped the SARS-CoV-2 proteins into three categories: host entry, self-acting, and host interacting. This review focuses on the self-acting and host-interacting SARS-CoV-2 proteins and summarizes current knowledge on how these proteins promote virus replication and disrupt host systems, as well as drugs that target the virus and virus interacting host proteins. Encouragingly, many of these drugs are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19. Future coronavirus outbreaks will most likely be caused by new virus strains that evade vaccine protection through mutations in entry proteins. Therefore, study of individual self-acting and host-interacting SARS-CoV-2 proteins for targeted therapeutic interventions is not only essential for fighting COVID-19 but also valuable against future coronavirus outbreaks.
Structural variations and expression profiles of the SARS-CoV-2 host invasion genes in lung cancer.
Journal of medical virology. 2020;(11):2637-2647
Recent days have seen growing evidence of cancer's susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and of the effect of genomic differences on the virus' entrance genes in lung cancer. Genetic confirmation of the hypotheses regarding gene expression and mutation pattern of target genes, including angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), basigin (CD147/BSG) and paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme (FURIN/PCSK3), as well as correlation analysis, was done in relation to lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC) using in silico analysis. Not only were gene expression and mutation patterns detected, but also there were correlation and survival analysis between ACE2 and other target genes expression levels. The total genetic anomaly carrying rate of target genes, including ACE2, TMPRSS2, CD147/BSG, and FURIN/PCSK3, was determined as 8.1% and 21 mutations were detected, with 7 of these mutations having pathogenic features. p.H34N on the RBD binding residues for SARS-CoV-2 was determined in our LUAD patient group. According to gene expression analysis results, though the TMPRSS2 level was statistically significantly decreased in the LUSC patient group compared to healthy control, the ACE2 level was determined to be high in LUAD and LUSC groups. There were no meaningful differences in the expression of CD147 and FURIN genes. The challenge for today is building the assessment of genomic susceptibility to COVID-19 in lung cancer, requiring detailed experimental laboratory studies, in addition to in silico analyses, as a way of assessing the mechanism of novel virus invasion that can be used in the development of effective SARS-CoV-2 therapy.