Routine use of statins and increased COVID-19 related mortality in inpatients with type 2 diabetes: Results from the CORONADO study.
Diabetes & metabolism. 2021;(2):101202
AIM: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represent a high-risk population for both cardiovascular diseases and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recent studies have reported interactions between statin treatment and COVID-19-related outcomes. The study reported here specifically assessed the association between routine statin use and COVID-19-related outcomes in inpatients with T2DM. METHODS The Coronavirus-SARS-CoV-2 and Diabetes Outcomes (CORONADO) study was a nationwide observational study aiming to describe the phenotypic characteristics and prognosis of T2DM patients with COVID-19 admitted to 68 French hospitals between 10 March and 10 April 2020. The composite primary outcome comprised tracheal intubation and/or death within 7 and 28 days of admission. The association between statin use and outcomes was estimated by logistic regression analysis after applying inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) using a propensity score-weighting approach. RESULTS Of the 2449 patients with T2DM (881 women, 1568 men; aged 70.9 ± 12.5 years) suitable for analysis, 1192 (49%) were using statin treatment before admission. In unadjusted analyses, patients using statins had rates of the primary outcome similar to those of non-users within both 7 (29.8% vs 27.0%, respectively; P = 0.1338) and 28 days (36.2% vs 33.8%, respectively; P = 0.2191) of admission. However, mortality rates were significantly higher in statin users within 7 (12.8% vs 9.8%, respectively; P = 0.02) and 28 days (23.9% vs 18.2%, respectively; P < 0.001). After applying IPTW, significant associations were observed with statin use and the primary outcome within 7 days (OR [95% CI]: 1.38 [1.04-1.83]) and with death within both 7 (OR [95% CI]: 1.74 [1.13-2.65]) and 28 days (OR [95% CI]: 1.46 [1.08-1.95]). CONCLUSION Routine statin treatment is significantly associated with increased mortality in T2DM patients hospitalized for COVID-19.
Prior Treatment with Statins is Associated with Improved Outcomes of Patients with COVID-19: Data from the SEMI-COVID-19 Registry.
BACKGROUND The impact of statins on COVID-19 outcomes is important given the high prevalence of their use among individuals at risk for severe COVID-19. Our aim is to assess whether patients receiving chronic statin treatment who are hospitalized with COVID-19 have reduced in-hospital mortality if statin therapy is maintained during hospitalization. METHODS This work is a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective multicenter study that analyzed 2921 patients who required hospital admission at 150 Spanish centers included in the nationwide SEMI-COVID-19 Network. We compared the clinical characteristics and COVID-19 disease outcomes between patients receiving chronic statin therapy who maintained this therapy during hospitalization versus those who did not. Propensity score matching was used to match each statin user whose therapy was maintained during hospitalization to a statin user whose therapy was withdrawn during hospitalization. RESULTS After propensity score matching, continuation of statin therapy was associated with lower all-cause mortality (OR 0.67, 0.54-0.83, p < 0.001); lower incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) (OR 0.76,0.6-0.97, p = 0.025), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR 0.78, 0.69- 0.89, p < 0.001), and sepsis (4.82% vs 9.85%, p = 0.008); and less need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) (5.35% vs 8.57, p < 0.001) compared to patients whose statin therapy was withdrawn during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS Patients previously treated with statins who are hospitalized for COVID-19 and maintain statin therapy during hospitalization have a lower mortality rate than those in whom therapy is withdrawn. In addition, statin therapy was associated with a decreased probability that patients with COVID-19 will develop AKI, ARDS, or sepsis and decreases the need for IMV.
The Knowns and Unknowns of Contemporary Statin Therapy for Familial Hypercholesterolemia.
Current atherosclerosis reports. 2020;(11):64
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Statins are first-line therapy for lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), particularly in heterozygous patients. We review advances and new questions on the use of statins in FH. RECENT FINDINGS Cumulative evidence from registry data and sub-analyses of clinical trials mandates the value of statin therapy for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in FH. Statins are safe in children and adolescents with FH, with longer term cardiovascular benefits. The potentially toxic effects of statins in pregnancy need to be considered, but no association has been reported in prospective cohort studies with birth defects. There is no rationale for discontinuation of statins in elderly FH unless indicated by adverse events. FH is undertreated, with > 80% of statin-treated FH patients failing to attain LDL cholesterol treatment targets. This may relate to adherence, tolerability, and genetic differences in statin responsiveness. Statin treatment from childhood may reduce the need for stringent cholesterol targets. Combination of statins with ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors significantly improves the efficacy of treatment. Whether statin use could improve the clinical course of FH patients with COVID-19 and other respiratory infections remains an unsolved issue for future research. Statins are the mainstay for primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD in FH. Sustained long-term optimal statin treatment from an early age can effectively prevent ASCVD over decades of life. Despite their widespread use, statins merit further investigation in FH.
Pros and cons for use of statins in people with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19).
Diabetes & metabolic syndrome. 2020;(5):1225-1229
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Morbidity and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is higher among people with diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins are used in the majority of people with DM and CVD. This mini-review discusses the current understanding of benefit-risk ratio of use of statins in COVID-19. METHODS We searched PubMed database using specific keywords related to our aims till June 12, 2020. Full text of relevant articles published in English language were retrieved and reviewed. RESULTS Statins, with their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, and anti-oxidant properties, have the potential to reduce severity of lung injury in, and mortality from, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infections. Statin-induced upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) has the potential to reduce lung injury from excess angiotensin II. By disrupting lipid rafts, statins have the potential to reduce viral entry into cells. However, benefit-risk ratio of its complex interaction with MYD88 gene expression on outcomes in COVID-19, and the putative role of low serum LDL cholesterol in increasing severity of SARS-CoV2 infection need further clarification. CONCLUSIONS People with COVID-19, who are already on statins for an underlying co-morbid condition, should continue on it unless there are specific contraindications. De-novo use of statins in people with COVID-19 with no underlying co-morbidity might be beneficial but awaits substantiation in clinical trials; till that time, de novo use of statins in COVID 19 should be limited to a clinical trial setting.
May statins and PCSK9 inhibitors be protective from COVID-19 in familial hypercholesterolemia subjects?
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD. 2020;(7):1068-1069