Hyponatremia, IL-6, and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection: may all fit together?
Journal of endocrinological investigation. 2020;(8):1137-1139
Hyponatremia in Infectious Diseases-A Literature Review.
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2020;(15)
Hyponatremia is one of the most common water-electrolyte imbalances in the human organism. A serum sodium concentration threshold of less than 135 mmol/L is diagnostic for hyponatremia. The disorder is usually secondary to various diseases, including infections. Our review aims to summarize the diagnostic value and impact of hyponatremia on the prognosis, length of the hospitalization, and mortality among patients with active infection. The scientific literature regarding hyponatremia was reviewed using PubMed, ClinicalKey, and Web of Science databases. Studies published between 2011 and 2020 were screened and eligible studies were selected according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement and specific inclusion criteria. The most common infections that were associated with hyponatremia were viral and bacterial infections, including COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). The etiology varied according to the infection site, setting and patient cohort it concerned. In several studies, hyponatremia was associated with prolonged hospitalization, worse outcomes, and higher mortality rates. Hyponatremia can also play a diagnostic role in differentiating pathogens that cause a certain infection type, as it was observed in community-acquired pneumonia. Although many mechanisms leading to hyponatremia have already been described, it is impossible with any certainty to ascribe the etiology of hyponatremia to any of them.