Malnutrition and Dietary Habits Alter the Immune System Which May Consequently Influence SARS-CoV-2 Virulence: A Review.
International journal of molecular sciences. 2022;(5)
COVID-19, resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is a major pandemic that the world is fighting. SARS-CoV-2 primarily causes lung infection by attaching to the ACE2 receptor on the alveolar epithelial cells. However, the ACE2 receptor is also present in intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting a link between nutrition, virulence and clinical outcomes of COVID-19. Respiratory viral infections perturb the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota is shaped by our diet; therefore, a healthy gut is important for optimal metabolism, immunology and protection of the host. Malnutrition causes diverse changes in the immune system by repressing immune responses and enhancing viral vulnerability. Thus, improving gut health with a high-quality, nutrient-filled diet will improve immunity against infections and diseases. This review emphasizes the significance of dietary choices and its subsequent effects on the immune system, which may potentially impact SARS-CoV-2 vulnerability.
The Complex Interplay between Immunonutrition, Mast Cells, and Histamine Signaling in COVID-19.
There is an ongoing need for new therapeutic modalities against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mast cell histamine has been implicated in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 as a regulator of proinflammatory, fibrotic, and thrombogenic processes. Consequently, mast cell histamine and its receptors represent promising pharmacological targets. At the same time, nutritional modulation of immune system function has been proposed and is being investigated for the prevention of COVID-19 or as an adjunctive strategy combined with conventional therapy. Several studies indicate that several immunonutrients can regulate mast cell activity to reduce the de novo synthesis and/or release of histamine and other mediators that are considered to mediate, at least in part, the complex pathophysiology present in COVID-19. This review summarizes the effects on mast cell histamine of common immunonutrients that have been investigated for use in COVID-19.
Selenium Deficiency Due to Diet, Pregnancy, Severe Illness, or COVID-19-A Preventable Trigger for Autoimmune Disease.
International journal of molecular sciences. 2021;(16)
The trace element selenium (Se) is an essential part of the human diet; moreover, increased health risks have been observed with Se deficiency. A sufficiently high Se status is a prerequisite for adequate immune response, and preventable endemic diseases are known from areas with Se deficiency. Biomarkers of Se status decline strongly in pregnancy, severe illness, or COVID-19, reaching critically low concentrations. Notably, these conditions are associated with an increased risk for autoimmune disease (AID). Positive effects on the immune system are observed with Se supplementation in pregnancy, autoimmune thyroid disease, and recovery from severe illness. However, some studies reported null results; the database is small, and randomized trials are sparse. The current need for research on the link between AID and Se deficiency is particularly obvious for rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Despite these gaps in knowledge, it seems timely to realize that severe Se deficiency may trigger AID in susceptible subjects. Improved dietary choices or supplemental Se are efficient ways to avoid severe Se deficiency, thereby decreasing AID risk and improving disease course. A personalized approach is needed in clinics and during therapy, while population-wide measures should be considered for areas with habitual low Se intake. Finland has been adding Se to its food chain for more than 35 years-a wise and commendable decision, according to today's knowledge. It is unfortunate that the health risks of Se deficiency are often neglected, while possible side effects of Se supplementation are exaggerated, leading to disregard for this safe and promising preventive and adjuvant treatment options. This is especially true in the follow-up situations of pregnancy, severe illness, or COVID-19, where massive Se deficiencies have developed and are associated with AID risk, long-lasting health impairments, and slow recovery.
Nutrition and immunity: lessons for COVID-19.
Nutrition & diabetes. 2021;(1):19
The role of the immune system is to protect the individual against pathogenic organisms. Nutrition is one of multiple factors that determines the immune response and good nutrition is important in supporting the immune response. Immunity can be impaired in older people, particularly those who are frail, in those living with obesity, in those who are malnourished and in those with low intakes of micronutrients. The immune impairments associated with nutritional inadequacy increase susceptibility to infection and permit infections to become more severe, even fatal. The adverse impact of poor nutrition on the immune system, including its inflammatory component, may be one of the explanations for the higher risk of more severe outcomes from infection with SARS-CoV-2 seen in older people and in those living with obesity. Studies of individual micronutrients including vitamin D and zinc suggest roles in reducing severity of infection with SARS-CoV-2. Good nutrition is also important in promoting a diverse gut microbiota, which in turn supports the immune system. The importance of nutrition in supporting the immune response also applies to assuring robust responses to vaccination. There are many lessons from the study of nutrition and immunity that are relevant for the battle with SARS-CoV-2.
Herbal immune-boosters: Substantial warriors of pandemic Covid-19 battle.
Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 2021;:153361
Current scenario depicts that world has been clenched by COVID-19 pandemic. Inevitably, public health and safety measures could be undertaken in order to dwindle the infection threat and mortality. Moreover, to overcome the global menace and drawing out world from moribund stage, there is an exigency for social distancing and quarantines. Since December, 2019, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) have came into existence and up till now world is still in the state of shock.At this point of time, COVID-19 has entered perilous phase, creating havoc among individuals, and this has been directly implied due to enhanced globalisation and ability of the virus to acclimatize at all conditions. The unabated transmission is due to lack of drugs, vaccines and therapeutics against this viral outbreak. But research is still underway to formulate the vaccines or drugs by this means, as scientific communities are continuously working to unravel the pharmacologically active compounds that might offer a new insight for curbing infections and pandemics. Therefore, the topical COVID-19 situation highlights an immediate need for effective therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2. Towards this effort, the present review discusses the vital concepts related to COVID-19, in terms of its origin, transmission, clinical aspects and diagnosis. However, here, we have formulated the novel concept hitherto, ancient means of traditional medicines or herbal plants to beat this pandemic.
Development of child immunity in the context of COVID-19 pandemic.
Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.). 2020;:108510
Children, because of having an immature immune system, are usually more prone than the adults to the microbial infections and have more severe symptoms, which is especially true for the newborns, and very young children. However, the review of clinical data from the current COVID-19 pandemic indicates otherwise. We discuss here what are the main features and components of children's immune system, the role of maternal transmission of immunity, and what are the possible explanations for the seemingly lower infection rate and severity of COVI-19 in children.
Strengthening the Immune System and Reducing Inflammation and Oxidative Stress through Diet and Nutrition: Considerations during the COVID-19 Crisis.
The coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) was announced as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. Challenges arise concerning how to optimally support the immune system in the general population, especially under self-confinement. An optimal immune response depends on an adequate diet and nutrition in order to keep infection at bay. For example, sufficient protein intake is crucial for optimal antibody production. Low micronutrient status, such as of vitamin A or zinc, has been associated with increased infection risk. Frequently, poor nutrient status is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, which in turn can impact the immune system. Dietary constituents with especially high anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacity include vitamin C, vitamin E, and phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols. Several of these can interact with transcription factors such as NF-kB and Nrf-2, related to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, respectively. Vitamin D in particular may perturb viral cellular infection via interacting with cell entry receptors (angiotensin converting enzyme 2), ACE2. Dietary fiber, fermented by the gut microbiota into short-chain fatty acids, has also been shown to produce anti-inflammatory effects. In this review, we highlight the importance of an optimal status of relevant nutrients to effectively reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, thereby strengthening the immune system during the COVID-19 crisis.