Effects of Loigolactobacillus coryniformis K8 CECT 5711 on the Immune Response of Elderly Subjects to COVID-19 Vaccination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Elderly people are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, with a high risk of developing severe disease and a reduced immune response to the COVID-19 vaccine. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to assess the effect of the consumption of the probiotic Loigolactobacillus coryniformis K8 CECT 5711 on the immune response generated by the COVID-19 vaccine in an elderly population was performed. Two hundred nursing home residents >60 yrs that had not COVID-19 were randomized to receive L. coryniformis K8 or a placebo daily for 3 months. All volunteers received a complete vaccination schedule of a mRNA vaccine, starting the intervention ten days after the first dose. Specific IgG and IgA antibody levels were analyzed 56 days after the end of the immunization process. No differences between the groups were observed in the antibody levels. During the intervention, 19 subjects had COVID-19 (11 receiving K8 vs. 8 receiving placebo, p = 0.457). Subgroup analysis in these patients showed that levels of IgG were significantly higher in those receiving K8 compared to placebo (p = 0.038). Among subjects >85 yrs that did not get COVID-19, administration of K8 tended to increase the IgA levels (p = 0.082). The administration of K8 may enhance the specific immune response against COVID-19 and may improve the COVID-19 vaccine-specific responses in elderly populations.
Sustaining efficient immune functions with regular physical exercise in the COVID-19 era and beyond.
European journal of clinical investigation. 2021;(5):e13485
The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) appearance in Wuhan, China, did rise the new virus disease (COVID-19), which spread globally in a short time, leading the World Health Organization to declare a new global pandemic. To contain and mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2, specific public health procedures were implemented in virtually all countries, with a significant impact on society, making it difficult to keep the regular practice of physical activity. It is widely accepted that an active lifestyle contributes to the improvement of general health and preservation of cardiovascular, respiratory, osteo-muscular and immune system capacities. The positive effects of regular physical activity on the immune system have emerged as a pivotal trigger of general health, underlying the beneficial effects of physical activity on multiple physiological systems. Accordingly, recent studies have already pointed out the negative impact of physical inactivity caused by the social isolation imposed by the public sanitary authorities due to COVID-19. Nevertheless, there are still no current narrative reviews evaluating the real impact of COVID-19 on active lifestyle or even discussing the possible beneficial effects of exercise-promoted immune upgrade against the severity or progression of COVID-19. Based on the consensus in the scientific literature, in this review, we discuss how an exercise adherence could adequately improve immune responses in times of the 'COVID-19 Era and beyond'.
Rheumatologists' perspective on coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and potential therapeutic targets.
Clinical rheumatology. 2020;(7):2055-2062
The ongoing pandemic coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a matter of global concern. Environmental factors such as air pollution and smoking and comorbid conditions (hypertension, diabetes mellitus and underlying cardio-respiratory illness) likely increase the severity of COVID-19. Rheumatic manifestations such as arthralgias and arthritis may be prevalent in about a seventh of individuals. COVID-19 can result in acute interstitial pneumonia, myocarditis, leucopenia (with lymphopenia) and thrombocytopenia, also seen in rheumatic diseases like lupus and Sjogren's syndrome. Severe disease in a subset of patients may be driven by cytokine storm, possibly due to secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), akin to that in systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis or adult-onset Still's disease. In the absence of high-quality evidence in this emerging disease, understanding of pathogenesis may help postulate potential therapies. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) appears important for viral entry into pneumocytes; dysbalance in ACE2 as caused by ACE inhibitors or ibuprofen may predispose to severe disease. Preliminary evidence suggests potential benefit with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. Antiviral drugs like lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir and remdesivir are also being explored. Cytokine storm and secondary HLH might require heightened immunosuppressive regimens. Current international society recommendations suggest that patients with rheumatic diseases on immunosuppressive therapy should not stop glucocorticoids during COVID-19 infection, although minimum possible doses may be used. Disease-modifying drugs should be continued; cessation may be considered during infection episodes as per standard practices. Development of a vaccine may be the only effective long-term protection against this disease.Key Points• Patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) may have features mimicking rheumatic diseases, such as arthralgias, acute interstitial pneumonia, myocarditis, leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and cytokine storm with features akin to secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.• Although preliminary results may be encouraging, high-quality clinical trials are needed to better understand the role of drugs commonly used in rheumatology like hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab in COVID-19.• Until further evidence emerges, it may be cautiously recommended to continue glucocorticoids and other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients receiving these therapies, with discontinuation of DMARDs during infections as per standard practice.
The key role of zinc in elderly immunity: A possible approach in the COVID-19 crisis.
Clinical nutrition ESPEN. 2020;:65-66
BACKGROUND & AIMS The COVID-19 infection can lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), mainly affecting patients aged 60 and older. Preliminary data suggest that the nutritional status can change the course of the infection, and on the matter, zinc is crucial for growth, development, and the maintenance of immune function. In the absence of treatment for this virus, there is an urgent need to find alternative methods that can contribute to control of disease. The aim of this paper is to establish the relation between zinc and COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS From the prior scientific knowledge, we have performed a review of the literature and examine the role of zinc in immune function in the infection by COVID-19. Our findings are that the zinc as an anti-inflammatory agent may help to optimize immune function and reduce the risk of infection. CONCLUSIONS Zinc supplementation can be a useful strategy to reduce the global burden of infection in the elderly, there is a need the increased reporting to improve our understanding of COVID-19 and the care of affected patients.