Quantity of IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein predicts pulmonary recovery from COVID-19.
Scientific reports. 2022;(1):3677
The CovILD study is a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study to systematically follow up patients after coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We extensively evaluated 145 COVID-19 patients at 3 follow-up visits scheduled for 60, 100, and 180 days after initial confirmed diagnosis based on typical symptoms and a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). We employed comprehensive pulmonary function and laboratory tests, including serum concentrations of IgG against the viral spike (S) glycoprotein, and compared the results to clinical data and chest computed tomography (CT). We found that at the 60 day follow-up, 131 of 145 (90.3%) participants displayed S-specific serum IgG levels above the cut-off threshold. Notably, the highly elevated IgG levels against S glycoprotein positively correlated with biomarkers of immune activation and negatively correlated with pulmonary function and the extent of pulmonary CT abnormalities. Based on the association between serum S glycoprotein-specific IgG and clinical outcome, we generated an S-specific IgG-based recovery score that, when applied in the early convalescent phase, accurately predicted delayed pulmonary recovery after COVID-19. Therefore, we propose that S-specific IgG levels serve as a useful immunological surrogate marker for identifying at-risk individuals with persistent pulmonary injury who may require intensive follow-up care after COVID-19.
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin profile in patients with celiac disease living in a high incidence area.
Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver. 2022;(1):3-9
BACKGROUND AND AIM How symptoms and antibodies related to SARS-CoV-2 infection develop in patients with celiac disease (CD) is unclear. We aimed to investigate the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in CD patients. METHODS CD patients were interviewed about the development of COVID-19 symptoms, compliance with anti-virus measures and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD). The presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA (anti-RBD and N proteins) was compared to that in non-CD subjects. Expression of the duodenal ACE2 receptor was investigated. When available, data on duodenal histology, anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA (tTGA), comorbidities and GFD adherence were analyzed. RESULTS Of 362 CD patients, 42 (12%) reported COVID-19 symptoms and 21% of these symptomatic patients presented anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ig. Overall, 18% of CD patients showed anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ig versus 25% of controls (p = 0.18). CD patients had significantly lower levels of anti-N IgA. tTGA, duodenal atrophy, GFD adherence or other comorbidities did not influence symptoms and/or antibodies. The ACE2 receptor was detected in the non-atrophic duodenal mucosa of patients; atrophy was associated with lower expression of the ACE2 receptor. CONCLUSION CD patients have an anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ig profile similar to non-celiac controls, except for anti-N IgA. No risk factors were identified among CD parameters and GFD adherence.
Antibody-induced procoagulant platelets in severe COVID-19 infection.
The pathophysiology of COVID-19-associated thrombosis seems to be multifactorial. We hypothesized that COVID-19 is accompanied by procoagulant platelets with subsequent alteration of the coagulation system. We investigated depolarization of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) concentration, and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Platelets from COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU; n = 21) showed higher ΔΨm depolarization, cytosolic Ca2+, and PS externalization compared with healthy controls (n = 18) and non-ICU COVID-19 patients (n = 4). Moreover, significant higher cytosolic Ca2+ and PS were observed compared with a septic ICU control group (ICU control; n = 5). In the ICU control group, cytosolic Ca2+ and PS externalization were comparable with healthy controls, with an increase in ΔΨm depolarization. Sera from COVID-19 patients in the ICU induced a significant increase in apoptosis markers (ΔΨm depolarization, cytosolic Ca2+, and PS externalization) compared with healthy volunteers and septic ICU controls. Interestingly, immunoglobulin G fractions from COVID-19 patients induced an Fcγ receptor IIA-dependent platelet apoptosis (ΔΨm depolarization, cytosolic Ca2+, and PS externalization). Enhanced PS externalization in platelets from COVID-19 patients in the ICU was associated with increased sequential organ failure assessment score (r = 0.5635) and D-dimer (r = 0.4473). Most importantly, patients with thrombosis had significantly higher PS externalization compared with those without. The strong correlations between markers for apoptosic and procoagulant platelets and D-dimer levels, as well as the incidence of thrombosis, may indicate that antibody-mediated procoagulant platelets potentially contributes to sustained increased thromboembolic risk in ICU COVID-19 patients.