Optimal inflammatory bowel disease management during the global coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.
Current opinion in gastroenterology. 2021;(4):313-319
PURPOSE OF REVIEW This review aims to summarize the current evidence regarding the risks and implications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and discuss optimal management of IBD during this pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS Patients with IBD are not at increased risk of COVID-19 but several risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 infection) have been identified, such as active IBD, obesity, and corticosteroid use. COVID-19 outcomes are similar among patients with IBD and the overall population. Although biologics have not been shown to increase the risk of severe COVID-19 complications, several risk factors have been associated with negative COVID-19 outcomes in patients with IBD, including older age, obesity, the presence of comorbidities, active disease, and corticosteroid use. IBD therapy should, therefore, be continued with the aim of attaining or maintaining remission, except for corticosteroids, which should be held or reduced to the minimal effective dose. Although it has been recommended that immunosuppressive therapy be held during a case of COVID-19, the half-lives of these drugs and data on the timing of restarting therapy limit the strength of these recommendations. We recommend COVID-19 vaccination for IBD patients whenever available, as benefits to the individual and to society outweigh the risks. SUMMARY As our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 continues to evolve, we are learning more about its impact in patients with IBD and how to better manage patients in this setting. Managing IBD during this pandemic has also highlighted the importance of restructuring services in order to adapt to current and potential future outbreaks. The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed IBD care through the expansion of telemedicine and development of novel approaches to remote monitoring.
Results from the IRoc-GN international registry of patients with COVID-19 and glomerular disease suggest close monitoring.
Kidney international. 2021;(1):227-237
The effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on individuals with immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, who are often undergoing immunosuppressive treatments, are unknown. Therefore, we created the International Registry of COVID infection in glomerulonephritis (IRoc-GN) and identified 40 patients with glomerulonephritis and COVID-19 followed in centers in North America and Europe. Detailed information on glomerulonephritis diagnosis, kidney parameters, and baseline immunosuppression prior to infection were recorded, as well as clinical presentation, laboratory values, treatment, complications, and outcomes of COVID-19. This cohort was compared to 80 COVID-positive control cases from the general population without glomerulonephritis matched for the time of infection. The majority (70%) of the patients with glomerulonephritis and all the controls were hospitalized. Patients with glomerulonephritis had significantly higher mortality (15% vs. 5%, respectively) and acute kidney injury (39% vs. 14%) than controls, while the need for kidney replacement therapy was not statistically different between the two groups. Receiving immunosuppression or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors at presentation did not increase the risk of death or acute kidney injury in the glomerulonephritis cohort. In the cohort with glomerulonephritis, lower serum albumin at presentation and shorter duration of glomerular disease were associated with greater risk of acute kidney injury and need for kidney replacement therapy. No differences in outcomes occurred between patients with primary glomerulonephritis versus glomerulonephritis associated with a systemic autoimmune disease (lupus or vasculitis). Thus, due to the higher mortality and risk of acute kidney injury than in the general population without glomerulonephritis, patients with glomerulonephritis and COVID-19 should be carefully monitored, especially when they present with low serum albumin levels.
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis associated with COVID-19 in a kidney transplant recipient.
Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society. 2021;(2):e13501
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might increase the risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Although several case reports and small series have been reported in the general population, scarce information is available regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated IPA in the setting of solid organ transplantation. We describe a case of a kidney transplant recipient with severe COVID-19 that was subsequently diagnosed with probable IPA on the basis of the repeated isolation of Aspergillus fumigatus in sputum cultures, repeatedly increased serum (1 → 3)-β-d-glucan levels, and enlarging cavitary nodules in the CT scan. The evolution was favorable after initiation of isavuconazole and nebulized liposomal amphotericin B combination therapy and the withdrawal of immunosuppression.
Experience of SARS-CoV-2 infection in two kidney transplant recipients living with HIV-1 infection.
Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society. 2021;(2):e13500
There is still no consensus on the optimal management of COVID-19 within the general population due to the emerging evidence base. High-risk groups, including kidney transplant recipients living with HIV present unique additional challenges. Here we discuss two kidney transplant recipients living with HIV with SARS-CoV-2 infection and their clinical course, and review the existing literature for this subset of challenging patients.