Early Post-Renal Transplant Hyperglycemia.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2022;(2):549-562
CONTEXT Though posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM, occurring > 45 days after transplantation) and its complications are well described, early post-renal transplant hyperglycemia (EPTH) (< 45 days) similarly puts kidney transplant recipients at risk of infections, rehospitalizations, and graft failure and is not emphasized much in the literature. Proactive screening and management of EPTH is required given these consequences. OBJECTIVE The aim of this article is to promote recognition of early post-renal transplant hyperglycemia, and to summarize available information on its pathophysiology, adverse effects, and management. METHODS A PubMed search was conducted for "early post-renal transplant hyperglycemia," "immediate posttransplant hyperglycemia," "post-renal transplant diabetes," "renal transplant," "diabetes," and combinations of these terms. EPTH is associated with significant complications including acute graft failure, rehospitalizations, cardiovascular events, PTDM, and infections. CONCLUSION Patients with diabetes experience better glycemic control in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), with resurgence of hyperglycemia after kidney transplant. Patients with and without known diabetes are at risk of EPTH. Risk factors include elevated pretransplant fasting glucose, diabetes, glucocorticoids, chronic infections, and posttransplant infections. We find that EPTH increases risk of re-hospitalizations from infections (cytomegalovirus, possibly COVID-19), acute graft rejections, cardiovascular events, and PTDM. It is essential, therefore, to provide diabetes education to patients before discharge. Insulin remains the standard of care while inpatient. Close follow-up after discharge is recommended for insulin adjustment. Some agents like dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have shown promise. The tenuous kidney function in the early posttransplant period and lack of data limit the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. There is a need for studies assessing noninsulin agents for EPTH to decrease risk of hypoglycemia associated with insulin and long-term complications of EPTH.