Levocetirizine and montelukast in the COVID-19 treatment paradigm.
May, BC, Gallivan, KH
International immunopharmacology. 2022;:108412
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Levocetirizine, a third-generation antihistamine, and montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, exhibit remarkable synergistic anti-inflammatory activity across a spectrum of signaling proteins, cell adhesion molecules, and leukocytes. By targeting cellular protein activity, they are uniquely positioned to treat the symptoms of COVID-19. Clinical data to date with an associated six-month follow-up, suggests the combination therapy may prevent the progression of the disease from mild to moderate to severe, as well as prevent/treat many of the aspects of 'Long COVID,' thereby cost effectively reducing both morbidity and mortality. To investigate patient outcomes, 53 consecutive COVID-19 test (+) cases (ages 3-90) from a well-established, single-center practice in Boston, Massachusetts, between March - November 2020, were treated with levocetirizine and montelukast in addition to then existing protocols . The data set was retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-four cases were considered mild (64%), 17 moderate (32%), and 2 (4%) severe. Several patients presented with significant comorbidities (obesity: n = 22, 41%; diabetes: n = 10, 19%; hypertension: n = 24, 45%). Among the cohort there were no exclusions, no intubations, and no deaths. The pilot study in Massachusetts encompassed the first COVID-19 wave which peaked on April 23, 2020 as well as the ascending portion of the second wave in the fall. During this period the average weekly COVID-19 case mortality rate (confirmed deaths/confirmed cases) varied considerably between 1 and 7.5% . FDA has approved a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase 2 clinical trial design, replete with electronic diaries and laboratory metrics to explore scientific questions not addressed herein.
Montelukast and Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Scoping Review.
Sharifinejad, N, Sharafian, S, Salekmoghadam, S, Tavakol, M, Qorbani, M
Iranian journal of allergy, asthma, and immunology. 2021;(4):384-393
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging worldwide issue, that has affected a large number of people around the world. So far, many studies have aimed to develop a therapeutic approach against COVID-19. Montelukast (MK) is a safe asthma controller drug, which is considered as a potential antiviral drug for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This review has a systematic approach to investigate the reports on the use of MK as a part of treatment or a prophylactic agent in COVID-19. The search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases and yielded 35 studies containing the influence of MK on SARS-CoV-2. Ultimately, MK appears to be worth being used as an adjuvant therapeutic and prophylactic drug against SARS-CoV-2. Nevertheless, more clinical trials are required to accurately investigate its effectiveness.
Montelukast's ability to fight COVID-19 infection.
Bozek, A, Winterstein, J
The Journal of asthma : official journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma. 2021;(10):1348-1349
Montelukast can be effective in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Role of leukotriene pathway and montelukast in pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations of Covid-19: The enigmatic entity.
Al-Kuraishy, HM, Al-Gareeb, AI, Almulaiky, YQ, Cruz-Martins, N, El-Saber Batiha, G
European journal of pharmacology. 2021;:174196
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the responsible agent for the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), has its entry point through interaction with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, highly expressed in lung type II alveolar cells and other tissues, like heart, pancreas, brain, and vascular endothelium. This review aimed to elucidate the potential role of leukotrienes (LTs) in the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to reveal the critical role of LT pathway receptor antagonists and inhibitors in Covid-19 management. A literature search was done in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases to find the potential role of montelukast and other LT inhibitors in the management of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations triggered by SARS-CoV-2. Data obtained so far underline that pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations in Covid-19 are attributed to a direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 in expressed ACE2 receptors or indirectly through NF-κB dependent induction of a cytokine storm. Montelukast can ameliorate extra-pulmonary manifestations in Covid-19 either directly through blocking of Cys-LTRs in different organs or indirectly through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway.