Probiotics: Versatile Bioactive Components in Promoting Human Health.
Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania). 2020;(9)
The positive impact of probiotic strains on human health has become more evident than ever before. Often delivered through food, dietary products, supplements, and drugs, different legislations for safety and efficacy issues have been prepared. Furthermore, regulatory agencies have addressed various approaches toward these products, whether they authorize claims mentioning a disease's diagnosis, prevention, or treatment. Due to the diversity of bacteria and yeast strains, strict approaches have been designed to assess for side effects and post-market surveillance. One of the most essential delivery systems of probiotics is within food, due to the great beneficial health effects of this system compared to pharmaceutical products and also due to the increasing importance of food and nutrition. Modern lifestyle or various diseases lead to an imbalance of the intestinal flora. Nonetheless, as the amount of probiotic use needs accurate calculations, different factors should also be taken into consideration. One of the novelties of this review is the presentation of the beneficial effects of the administration of probiotics as a potential adjuvant therapy in COVID-19. Thus, this paper provides an integrative overview of different aspects of probiotics, from human health care applications to safety, quality, and control.
Direct or Collateral Liver Damage in SARS-CoV-2-Infected Patients.
Seminars in liver disease. 2020;(3):321-330
Liver injury can result from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with more than one-third of COVID-19 patients exhibiting elevated liver enzymes. Microvesicular steatosis, inflammation, vascular congestion, and thrombosis in the liver have been described in autopsy samples from COVID-19 patients. Several factors, including direct cytopathic effect of the virus, immune-mediated collateral damage, or an exacerbation of preexisting liver disease may contribute to liver pathology in COVID-19. Due to its immunological functions, the liver is an organ likely to participate in the viral response against SARS-CoV-2 and this may predispose it to injury. A better understanding of the mechanism contributing to liver injury is needed to develop and implement early measures to prevent serious liver damage in patients suffering from COVID-19. This review summarizes current reports of SARS-CoV-2 with an emphasis on how direct infection and subsequent severe inflammatory response may contribute to liver injury in patients with and without preexisting liver disease.