Quantity of IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein predicts pulmonary recovery from COVID-19.
Scientific reports. 2022;(1):3677
The CovILD study is a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study to systematically follow up patients after coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We extensively evaluated 145 COVID-19 patients at 3 follow-up visits scheduled for 60, 100, and 180 days after initial confirmed diagnosis based on typical symptoms and a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). We employed comprehensive pulmonary function and laboratory tests, including serum concentrations of IgG against the viral spike (S) glycoprotein, and compared the results to clinical data and chest computed tomography (CT). We found that at the 60 day follow-up, 131 of 145 (90.3%) participants displayed S-specific serum IgG levels above the cut-off threshold. Notably, the highly elevated IgG levels against S glycoprotein positively correlated with biomarkers of immune activation and negatively correlated with pulmonary function and the extent of pulmonary CT abnormalities. Based on the association between serum S glycoprotein-specific IgG and clinical outcome, we generated an S-specific IgG-based recovery score that, when applied in the early convalescent phase, accurately predicted delayed pulmonary recovery after COVID-19. Therefore, we propose that S-specific IgG levels serve as a useful immunological surrogate marker for identifying at-risk individuals with persistent pulmonary injury who may require intensive follow-up care after COVID-19.
Probiotics: A potential immunomodulator in COVID-19 infection management.
Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.). 2021;:1-12
COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is an ongoing global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 affects the human respiratory tract's epithelial cells, leading to a proinflammatory cytokine storm and chronic lung inflammation. With numerous patients dying daily, a vaccine and specific antiviral drug regimens are being explored. Probiotics are live microorganisms with proven beneficial effects on human health. While probiotics as nutritional supplements are long practiced in different cuisines across various countries, the emerging scientific evidence supports the antiviral and general immune-strengthening health effects of the probiotics. Here, we present an overview of the experimental studies published in the last 10 years that provide a scientific basis for unexplored probiotics as a preventive approach to respiratory viral infections. Based on collated insights from these experimental data, we identify promising microbial strains that may serve as lead prophylactic and immune-boosting probiotics in COVID-19 management.
Pathogenesis-directed therapy of 2019 novel coronavirus disease.
Journal of medical virology. 2021;(3):1320-1342
The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) now is considered a global public health emergency. One of the unprecedented challenges is defining the optimal therapy for those patients with severe pneumonia and systemic manifestations of COVID-19. The optimal therapy should be largely based on the pathogenesis of infections caused by this novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the onset of COVID-19, there have been many prepublications and publications reviewing the therapy of COVID-19 as well as many prepublications and publications reviewing the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. However, there have been no comprehensive reviews that link COVID-19 therapies to the pathogenic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2. To link COVID-19 therapies to pathogenic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2, we performed a comprehensive search through MEDLINE, PubMed, medRxiv, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science using the following keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, novel 2019 coronavirus, pathology, pathologic, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, coronavirus pneumonia, coronavirus infection, coronavirus pulmonary infection, coronavirus cardiovascular infection, coronavirus gastroenteritis, coronavirus autopsy findings, viral sepsis, endotheliitis, thrombosis, coagulation abnormalities, immunology, humeral immunity, cellular immunity, inflammation, cytokine storm, superantigen, therapy, treatment, therapeutics, immune-based therapeutics, antiviral agents, respiratory therapy, oxygen therapy, anticoagulation therapy, adjuvant therapy, and preventative therapy. Opinions expressed in this review also are based on personal experience as clinicians, authors, peer reviewers, and editors. This narrative review linking COVID-19 therapies with pathogenic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in six major therapeutic goals for COVID-19 therapy based on the pathogenic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2. These goals are listed below: 1. The first goal is identifying COVID-19 patients that require both testing and therapy. This is best accomplished with a COVID-19 molecular test from symptomatic patients as well as determining the oxygen saturation in such patients with a pulse oximeter. Whether a symptomatic respiratory illness is COVID-19, influenza, or another respiratory pathogen, an oxygen saturation less than 90% means that the patient requires medical assistance. 2. The second goal is to correct the hypoxia. This goal generally requires hospitalization for oxygen therapy; other respiratory-directed therapies such as prone positioning or mechanical ventilation are often used in the attempt to correct hypoxemia due to COVID-19. 3. The third goal is to reduce the viral load of SARS-CoV-2. Ideally, there would be an oral antiviral agent available such as seen with the use of oseltamivir phosphate for influenza. This oral antiviral agent should be taken early in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Such an oral agent is not available yet. Currently, two options are available for reducing the viral load of SARS-CoV-2. These are post-Covid-19 plasma with a high neutralizing antibody titer against SARS-CoV-2 or intravenous remdesivir; both options require hospitalization. 4. The fourth goal is to identify and address the hyperinflammation phase often seen in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Currently, fever with an elevated C-reactive protein is useful for diagnosing this hyperinflammation syndrome. Low-dose dexamethasone therapy currently is the best therapeutic approach. 5. The fifth goal is to identify and address the hypercoagulability phase seen in many hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Patients who would benefit from anticoagulation therapy can be identified by a marked increase in d-dimer and prothrombin time with a decrease in fibrinogen. To correct this disseminated intravascular coagulation-like phase, anticoagulation therapy with low molecular weight heparin is preferred. Anticoagulation therapy with unfractionated heparin is preferred in COVID-19 patients with acute kidney injuries. 6. The last goal is prophylaxis for persons who are not yet infected. Potential supplements include vitamin D and zinc. Although the data for such supplements is not extremely strong, it can be argued that almost 50% of the population worldwide has a vitamin D deficiency. Correcting this deficiency would be beneficial regardless of any impact of COVID-19. Similarly, zinc is an important supplement that is important in one's diet regardless of any effect on SARS-CoV-2. As emerging therapies are found to be more effective against the SARS-CoV-2 pathogenic mechanisms identified, they can be substituted for those therapies presented in this review.
Comparative study of lung ultrasound and chest computed tomography scan in the assessment of severity of confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia.
Intensive care medicine. 2020;(9):1707-1713
PURPOSE The relationship between lung ultrasound (LUS) and chest computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia is not clearly defined. The primary objective of our study was to assess the performance of LUS in determining severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia compared with chest CT scan. Secondary objectives were to test the association between LUS score and location of the patient, use of mechanical ventilation, and the pulse oximetry (SpO2)/fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio. METHODS A multicentre observational study was performed between 15 March and 20 April 2020. Patients in the Emergency Department (ED) or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with acute dyspnoea who were PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2, and who had LUS and chest CT performed within a 24-h period, were included. RESULTS One hundred patients were included. LUS score was significantly associated with pneumonia severity assessed by chest CT and clinical features. The AUC of the ROC curve of the relationship of LUS versus chest CT for the assessment of severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia was 0.78 (CI 95% 0.68-0.87; p < 0.0001). A high LUS score was associated with the use of mechanical ventilation, and with a SpO2/FiO2 ratio below 357. CONCLUSION In known SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients, the LUS score was predictive of pneumonia severity as assessed by a chest CT scan and clinical features. Within the limitations inherent to our study design, LUS can be used to assess SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia severity.
MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Vitamin D and COVID-19.
European journal of endocrinology. 2020;(5):R133-R147
The SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic has generated an explosion of interest both in the mechanisms of infection leading to dissemination and expression of this disease, and in potential risk factors that may have a mechanistic basis for disease propagation or control. Vitamin D has emerged as a factor that may be involved in these two areas. The focus of this article is to apply our current understanding of vitamin D as a facilitator of immunocompetence both with regard to innate and adaptive immunity and to consider how this may relate to COVID-19 disease. There are also intriguing potential links to vitamin D as a factor in the cytokine storm that portends some of the most serious consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection, such as the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Moreover, cardiac and coagulopathic features of COVID-19 disease deserve attention as they may also be related to vitamin D. Finally, we review the current clinical data associating vitamin D with SARS-CoV-2 infection, a putative clinical link that at this time must still be considered hypothetical.
Lungs as target of COVID-19 infection: Protective common molecular mechanisms of vitamin D and melatonin as a new potential synergistic treatment.
Life sciences. 2020;:117808
COVID-19 pandemic has a high mortality rate and is affecting practically the entire world population. The leading cause of death is severe acute respiratory syndrome as a consequence of exacerbated inflammatory response accompanied by uncontrolled oxidative stress as well as the inflammatory reaction at the lung level. Until now, there is not a specific and definitive treatment for this pathology that worries the world population, especially the older adults who constitute the main risk group. In this context, it results in a particular interest in the evaluation of the efficacy of existing pharmacological agents that may be used for overcoming or attenuating the severity of this pulmonary complication that has ended the lives of many people worldwide. Vitamin D and melatonin could be good options for achieving this aim, taking into account that they have many shared underlying mechanisms that are able to modulate and control the immune adequately and oxidative response against COVID-19 infection, possibly even through a synergistic interaction. The renin-angiotensin system exaltation with consequent inflammatory response has a leading role in the physiopathology of COVID-19 infection; and it may be down-regulated by vitamin D and melatonin in many organs. Therefore, it is also essential to analyze this potential therapeutic association and their relation with RAS as part of this new approach.
A comprehensive review of histopathological findings of infections induced by COVID-19.
Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France). 2020;(7):143-151
The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-Coronavirus (CoV2) virus, first identified in Wuhan, China, caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which soon became a global pandemic, as labelled by the World Health Organization (WHO). The transmission method of the infection is primarily through droplets of various sizes. The SARS-CoV2 virus leads to a severe respiratory illness which in the first place causes the simulation of the acute respiratory syndrome. In order to diagnose of COVID-19 efficiently, samples with infection probability need to be examined through histopathological methods. Survival chances of the infected can remarkably increase if the virus is diagnosed timely by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest. One of the destructive effects of COVID-19 is the formation of ground-glass opacity (GGO) in the lungs which might be regarded to be equivalent to high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). COVID-19 acts very similarly to SARS and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) which can be inactivated by the chemical compounds of ethanol and sodium hypochlorite. Epidemiologic characteristics of COVID-19 have been indicated by numerous studies; however, there is still a lack of details of pathologic changes in the lung. The present comprehensive review is an attempt to assess and cover the current state of knowledge on COVID-19 disease based on the histopathologic studies conducted before May 2020.