Malnutrition and Dietary Habits Alter the Immune System Which May Consequently Influence SARS-CoV-2 Virulence: A Review.
International journal of molecular sciences. 2022;(5)
COVID-19, resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is a major pandemic that the world is fighting. SARS-CoV-2 primarily causes lung infection by attaching to the ACE2 receptor on the alveolar epithelial cells. However, the ACE2 receptor is also present in intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting a link between nutrition, virulence and clinical outcomes of COVID-19. Respiratory viral infections perturb the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota is shaped by our diet; therefore, a healthy gut is important for optimal metabolism, immunology and protection of the host. Malnutrition causes diverse changes in the immune system by repressing immune responses and enhancing viral vulnerability. Thus, improving gut health with a high-quality, nutrient-filled diet will improve immunity against infections and diseases. This review emphasizes the significance of dietary choices and its subsequent effects on the immune system, which may potentially impact SARS-CoV-2 vulnerability.
Impact of COVID-19: urging a need for multi-domain assessment of COVID-19 inpatients.
European geriatric medicine. 2021;(4):741-748
OBJECTIVE To retrospectively analyse data obtained from the multi-domain assessment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, to describe their health status at discharge, and to investigate whether subgroups of patients, more specific ICU patients and older adults (> 70 years), had more (or less) risk to experience specific impairments. METHODS Retrospective case series in the University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium of confirmed COVID-19 patients 'after surviving an ICU-stay', 'aged ≥ 70 years', or 'aged < 70 years with a length of hospitalization > 7 days'. Exclusion criteria were 'unwilling to cooperate', 'medically unstable', or 'palliative care policy'. Following tests were used: 'Five Times Sit To Stand Test', 'hand grip dynamometry', 'Barthel index', 'Swallowing screening', 'Montreal Cognitive Assessment', 'Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale', and 'Nutritional Risk Screening 2002'. RESULTS One or more tests were obtained in 135/163 patients (83.3%). Physical impairments were present in 43.2-82.8% of the patients. Median BI was 10/20 indicating limited self-dependency. Swallow impairments were present in 3/53 (5.7%) and 24/76 (31.6%) had risk of malnutrition. Impaired memory was seen in 26/43 (60.5%) and 22/47 (46.8%) had elevated anxiety/depression scores. Older adults had more physical, functional, and cognitive impairments. ICU patients had a lower hand grip force. CONCLUSION(S): The high prevalence of physical, cognitive, psychological, and functional impairments in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, both ICU and non-ICU patients, indicates that assessment of impairments is imperative. These results imply that rehabilitation and follow-up is essential for these patients. This paper proposes a short, workable assessment composed with known outcome measures to assess different domains of COVID-19 patients.
Evolution of Nutritional Status after Early Nutritional Management in COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients.
Background & Aims: SARS-CoV2 infection is associated with an increased risk of malnutrition. Although there are numerous screening and nutritional management protocols for malnutrition, only few studies have reported nutritional evolution after COVID-19. The objectives of this study were to describe the evolution of nutritional parameters between admission and 30 days after hospital discharge, and to determine predictive factors of poor nutritional outcome after recovery in adult COVID-19 patients. Methods: In this observational longitudinal study, we report findings after discharge in 91 out of 114 patients initially admitted for COVID-19 who received early nutritional management. Nutritional status was defined using GLIM criteria and compared between admission and day 30 after discharge. Baseline predictors of nutritional status at day 30 were assessed using logistic regression. Results: Thirty days after discharge, 28.6% of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were malnourished, compared to 42.3% at admission. Half of malnourished patients (53%) at admission recovered a normal nutritional status after discharge. Weight trajectories were heterogeneous and differed if patients had been transferred to an intensive care unit (ICU) during hospitalization (p = 0.025). High oxygen requirement during hospitalization (invasive ventilation p = 0.016 (OR 8.3 [1.6-61.2]) and/or oxygen therapy over 5 L/min p = 0.021 (OR 3.2 [1.2-8.9]) were strong predictors of malnutrition one month after discharge. Conclusions: With early nutritional management, most patients hospitalized for COVID-19 improved nutritional parameters after discharge. These findings emphasize the importance of nutritional care in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in medicine departments, especially in those transferred from ICU.
Nutritional screening based on objective indices at admission predicts in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19.
Nutrition journal. 2021;(1):46
BACKGROUND Could nutritional status serve as prognostic factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? The present study evaluated the clinical and nutritional characteristics of COVID-19 patients and explored the relationship between risk for malnutrition at admission and in-hospital mortality. METHODS A retrospective, observational study was conducted in two hospitals in Hubei, China. Confirmed cases of COVID-19 were typed as mild/moderate, severe, or critically ill. Clinical data and in-hospital death were collected. The risk for malnutrition was assessed using the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) via objective parameters at admission. RESULTS Two hundred ninety-five patients were enrolled, including 66 severe patients and 41 critically ill patients. Twenty-five deaths were observed, making 8.47% in the whole population and 37.88% in the critically ill subgroup. Patients had significant differences in nutrition-related parameters and inflammatory biomarkers among three types of disease severity. Patients with lower GNRI and PNI, as well as higher CONUT scores, had a higher risk of in-hospital mortality. The receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated the good prognostic implication of GNRI and CONUT score. The multivariate logistic regression showed that baseline nutritional status, assessed by GNRI, PNI, or CONUT score, was a prognostic indicator for in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS Despite variant screening tools, poor nutritional status was associated with in-hospital death in patients infected with COVID-19. This study highlighted the importance of nutritional screening at admission and the new insight of nutritional monitoring or therapy.
Obesity, malnutrition, and trace element deficiency in the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic: An overview.
Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). 2021;:111016
The world is currently facing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic which places great pressure on health care systems and workers, often presents with severe clinical features, and sometimes requires admission into intensive care units. Derangements in nutritional status, both for obesity and malnutrition, are relevant for the clinical outcome in acute illness. Systemic inflammation, immune system impairment, sarcopenia, and preexisting associated conditions, such as respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases related to obesity, could act as crucial factors linking nutritional status and the course and outcome of COVID-19. Nevertheless, vitamins and trace elements play an essential role in modulating immune response and inflammatory status. Overall, evaluation of the patient's nutritional status is not negligible for its implications on susceptibility, course, severity, and responsiveness to therapies, in order to perform a tailored nutritional intervention as an integral part of the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The aim of this study was to review the current data on the relevance of nutritional status, including trace elements and vitamin status, in influencing the course and outcome of the disease 3 mo after the World Health Organization's declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic.
The nutritional status of the elderly patient infected with COVID-19: the forgotten risk factor?
Current medical research and opinion. 2021;(4):549-554
BACKGROUND Since the first cases of COVID-19 were reported in Wuhan, the nutritional status of individuals infected with the virus has not been included in the risk profiles prepared. However, nutritional status, along with other factors, is decisive in the evolution of patients with other infectious diseases. The nutritional status of individuals is considered an indicator of health status. Furthermore, optimal nutritional status transcends the individual, and poor diet in a population can be considered a group risk factor. Evidence exists on the influence that diet has on the immune system and susceptibility to disease. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the nutritional status of patients older than 65 years who were admitted due to COVID-19 and how this has influenced the evolution of patients. DESIGN This prospective and observational study was performed in patients with COVID-19 infection confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data were collected from the first 24 h of admission. All patients admitted during one month to the wards assigned to COVID-19 infection were included. RESULTS A total of 83 patients were studied. The statistical study of mortality showed associations with age (p = .005), living in a nursing home (p = .022), a high Charlson Comorbidity Index (p = .039), hypertension (p = .032), comorbidities of dementia (p = .019) and cerebral vascular disease (p = .041), and Barthel Index (p = .010). The analysis of the influence of the nutritional state on mortality revealed a statistical association between malnutrition and mortality in the pooled data analysis (p = .005) and analysis by degrees of malnutrition (p = .27). CONCLUSIONS Malnutrition was a risk factor as powerful as others such as hypertension, age, and different comorbidities. We must evaluate and treat the nutritional status of elderly patients with COVID-19 infection since it directly affects their evolution.
Comparison between Nutric Score and modified nutric score to assess ICU mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19.
Clinical nutrition ESPEN. 2021;:479-482
BACKGROUND AND AIMS NUTrition Risk in the Critically ill (NUTRIC score) and modified Nutric score (mNUTRIC score) have been validated as screening tool for quantifying risk of adverse outcome in patients admitted in intensive care department. They differ for the measurement of IL-6 levels. In patients with COVID-19 disease the inflammatory response plays a crucial role leading to cytochine storm responsible of multiple organ damage. In this population, levels of IL-6 have been measured as indicator of inflammatory status. Aim of the study is to compare prognostic performance of both scores in predicting ICU mortality between patients with COVID-19 disease. METHODS A single centre, retrospective, cohort study on patients admitted in ICU with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 was performed. Prognostic performance of NUTRIC score and mNUTRIC score were assessed and compared for discriminative abilities for ICU-mortality. RESULTS 43 patients were enrolled, age 64 (55; 70), BMI 28 ± 4. Mean NUTRIC score was 2.5 ± 1, mNUTRIC was 2.6 ± 1.1. Mortality was 39.5%, all patients had low nutritional risk according to both scores (≤5 and ≤ 4 for NUTRIC and mNUTRIC score respectively). The discriminative ability of Nutric Score for ICU mortality was 0.675 (95% CI: 0.524-0.825), while that of mNutric score was 0.655 (0.513-0.861), p = 0.667. CONCLUSIONS Prognostic performance of Nutric score and mNutric score is comparable, but the discriminative ability is low even in patients with high inflammatory status as in COVID-19 affected population. These scores may not be appropriate in patients with COVID-19 for the determination of nutritional risk.
COVID-19 is associated with clinically significant weight loss and risk of malnutrition, independent of hospitalisation: A post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study.
Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2021;(4):2420-2426
BACKGROUND & AIMS Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may associate with clinical manifestations, ranging from alterations in smell and taste to severe respiratory distress requiring intensive care, that might associate with weight loss and malnutrition. We aimed to assess the incidence of unintentional weight loss and malnutrition in COVID-19 survivors. METHODS In this post-hoc analysis of a prospective observational cohort study, we enrolled all adult (age ≥18 years) patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 who had been discharged home from either a medical ward or the Emergency Department of San Raffaele University Hospital, and were re-evaluated after remission at the Outpatient COVID-19 Follow-Up Clinic of the same Institution from April 7, 2020, to May 11, 2020. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters upon admission were prospectively collected. At follow-up, anthropometrics, the mini nutritional assessment screening and a visual analogue scale for appetite were assessed. RESULTS A total of 213 patients were included in the analysis (33% females, median age 59.0 [49.5-67.9] years, 70% overweight/obese upon initial assessment, 73% hospitalised). Sixty-one patients (29% of the total, and 31% of hospitalised patients vs. 21% of patients managed at home, p = 0.14) had lost >5% of initial body weight (median weight loss 6.5 [5.0-9.0] kg, or 8.1 [6.1-10.9]%). Patients who lost weight had greater systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein 62.9 [29.0-129.5] vs.48.7 [16.1-96.3] mg/dL; p = 0.02), impaired renal function (23.7% vs. 8.7% of patients; p = 0.003) and longer disease duration (32 [27-41] vs. 24 [21-30] days; p = 0.047) as compared with those who did not lose weight. At multivariate logistic regression analysis, only disease duration independently predicted weight loss (OR 1.05 [1.01-1.10] p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS COVID-19 might negatively impact body weight and nutritional status. In COVID-19 patients, nutritional evaluation, counselling and treatment should be implemented at initial assessment, throughout the course of disease, and after clinical remission. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV REGISTRATION NCT04318366.
Elderly at time of COronaVIrus disease 2019 (COVID-19): possible role of immunosenescence and malnutrition.
The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic is rapidly and unpredictably evolving and the majority of deaths are occurring in older people. A partial description of the magnitude of the scenario is provided by numbers and statistics, which probably underestimate the ongoing tragedy. In the present opinion paper, we have focused our attention on the evidence of the relationship among malnutrition, immunosenescence, and the higher morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. In particular, we propose the intriguing hypothesis that correction of nutritional deficits may attenuate the age-dependent alterations of the innate and adaptive immune system which participate in the increased susceptibility and worse outcome observed in the elderly COVID-19 patients.