Effects of COVID-19 in South African health system and society: An explanatory study.
Diabetes & metabolic syndrome. 2020;(6):1809-1814
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The underestimation of the severity of COVID-19 by the South African government resulted in delayed action against the pandemic. Ever since WHO declared COVID-19 a pandemic preventive action was comprehensively upgraded worldwide. This prompted South African authorities to implement physical distancing, self-isolation, closure of non-essential services, schools, travelling restrictions and recursive national lockdowns to mitigate the impact of COVID-19. This explanatory study sought to review the effects of COVID-19 in the South African health system and society. METHODS The study applied literature research of COVID-19 reports, policies from the National Department of Health, WHO, Africa CDC, and articles from Google Scholar, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed. RESULTS The South African health system is affected by the lack of PPEs, increased mortality rates, mental health problems, substance abuse, resurgent of NCDs. The closure of international borders, global demand meltdown, supply disruptions, dramatic scaling down of human and industrial activities during lockdown cause socio-economic problems. The prolonged effects of lockdown on psychosocial support services resulted in the outbursts of uncertainties, acute panic, fear, depression, obsessive behaviours, social unrests, stigmatization, anxiety, increased gender-based violence cases and discrimination in the distribution of relief food aid. CONCLUSION To slow down the spread of COVID-19, massive testing must be adopted, contact tracing, isolation, and home quarantine guidelines for asymptomatic cases which promote behavioural change and reviewing of policy on food relief.
Impact of Social Isolation Due to COVID-19 on Health in Older People: Mental and Physical Effects and Recommendations.
The journal of nutrition, health & aging. 2020;(9):938-947
OBJECTIVES To review the impact of social isolation during COVID-19 pandemic on mental and physical health of older people and the recommendations for patients, caregivers and health professionals. DESIGN Narrative review. SETTING Non-institutionalized community-living people. PARTICIPANTS 20.069 individuals from ten descriptive cross-sectional papers. MEASUREMENTS Articles since 2019 to 2020 published on Pubmed, Scielo and Google Scholar databases with the following MeSh terms ('COVID-19', 'coronavirus', 'aging', 'older people', 'elderly', 'social isolation' and 'quarantine') in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. The studies not including people over 60 were excluded. Guidelines, recommendations, and update documents from different international organizations related to mental and physical activity were also analysed. RESULTS 41 documents have been included in this narrative review, involving a total of 20.069 individuals (58% women), from Asia, Europe and America. 31 articles included recommendations and 10 addressed the impact of social distancing on mental or physical health. The main outcomes reported were anxiety, depression, poor sleep quality and physical inactivity during the isolation period. Cognitive strategies and increasing physical activity levels using apps, online videos, telehealth, are the main international recommendations. CONCLUSION Mental and physical health in older people are negatively affected during the social distancing for COVID-19. Therefore, a multicomponent program with exercise and psychological strategies are highly recommended for this population during the confinement. Future investigations are necessary in this field.