Effects of Micronutrients or Conditional Amino Acids on COVID-19-Related Outcomes: An Evidence Analysis Center Scoping Review.
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2021;(7):1354-1363
Recent narrative reviews have described the potential efficacy of providing individuals infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with additional micronutrients to reduce disease severity. Although there are compelling reasons why providing additional micronutrients or conditional amino acids may affect COVID-19-related outcomes, evidence is lacking. The objective of this scoping review is to explore and describe the literature examining the effect of providing additional micronutrients or conditional amino acids (glutamine, arginine) in adults with conditions or infections similar to COVID-19 infection on COVID-19-related health outcomes. A literature search of the MEDLINE database and hand search of Cochrane Database of systematic reviews retrieved 1,423 unique studies, and 8 studies were included in this scoping review. Four studies examined a target population with ventilator-related pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and the other 4 studies included patients who were at risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia. Interventions included intravenous ascorbic acid, intramuscular cholecalciferol, enteral and intramuscular vitamin E, enteral zinc sulfate, and oral and parenteral glutamine. In 6 of the 8 included studies, baseline status of the nutrient of interest was not reported and, thus, it is uncertain how outcomes may vary in the context of nutrient deficiency or insufficiency compared with sufficiency. In the absence of direct evidence examining efficacy of providing additional micronutrients or conditional amino acids to standard care, registered dietitian nutritionists must rely on clinical expertise and indirect evidence to guide medical nutrition therapy for patients infected with COVID-19.
[The role of micronutrients in the comprehensive rehabilitation of patients with the novel coronavirus infection COVID-19].
Voprosy pitaniia. 2021;(2):40-49
Post-COVID disorders syndrome (PCDS) is an umbrella term for a complex of persistent symptoms that a patient can develop after suffering from COVID-19. The aim of the research was to systematize data on the role of micronutrients in the treatment of PCDS. Material and methods. The authors carried out a systematic analysis of foreign (ncbi. nlm.nih.gov) and Russian (elibrary.ru) scientific publications. Results. The most common symptoms that can persist for a long time after a coronavirus infection can be divided into 4 groups: 1) hypoxic syndrome (respiratory and oxygen deficiency); 2) asthenic syndrome; 3) syndrome of neuropsychiatric disorders; 4) gastrointestinal symptoms. Adequate dietary intake of vitamins and mineral substances is critical for the proper functioning of the immune system and maintenance of the organism functional reserves. The optimal consumption of vitamins D, C and E, zinc and ω-3 fatty acids with ration can be useful for preventing infection, supporting immunity during COVID-19 disease and in the complex of rehabilitation of patients with PCDS. Conclusion. Intake of dietary supplements containing complex of micronutrients can be recommended as a rational adjuvant therapy during the rehabilitation period after COVID-19. However, further research is essential to determine the effective dosage of vitamins and other micronutrients to reduce the manifestations of PCDS.
Role of vitamins and minerals as immunity boosters in COVID-19.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. On March 11, 2020, it was declared a global pandemic. As the world grapples with COVID-19 and the paucity of clinically meaningful therapies, attention has been shifted to modalities that may aid in immune system strengthening. Taking into consideration that the COVID-19 infection strongly affects the immune system via multiple inflammatory responses, pharmaceutical companies are working to develop targeted drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19. A balanced nutritional diet may play an essential role in maintaining general wellbeing by controlling chronic infectious diseases. A balanced diet including vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K, and some micronutrients such as zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorus may be beneficial in various infectious diseases. This study aimed to discuss and present recent data regarding the role of vitamins and minerals in the treatment of COVID-19. A deficiency of these vitamins and minerals in the plasma concentration may lead to a reduction in the good performance of the immune system, which is one of the constituents that lead to a poor immune state. This is a narrative review concerning the features of the COVID-19 and data related to the usage of vitamins and minerals as preventive measures to decrease the morbidity and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19.
Micronutrients and bioactive substances: Their potential roles in combating COVID-19.
Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). 2021;:111103
OBJECTIVES The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is seriously threatening public health and setting off huge economic crises across the world. In the absence of specific drugs for COVID-19, there is an urgent need to look for alternative approaches. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to review the roles of micronutrients and bioactive substances as potential alternative approaches in combating COVID-19. METHODS This review was based on the literature identified using electronic searches in different databases. RESULTS Vitamins (A, B, C, D, and E), minerals (selenium and zinc), and bioactive substances from curcumin, echinacea, propolis, garlic, soybean, green tea, and other polyphenols were identified as having potential roles in interfering with spike glycoproteins, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, and transmembrane protease serine 2 at the entry site, and inhibiting activities of papain-like protease, 3 chymotrypsin-like protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the replication cycle of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Having immunomodulating, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral properties, such micronutrients and bioactive substances are consequently promising alterative nutritional approaches to combat COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS The roles of micronutrients and bioactive substances in the fight against COVID-19 are exciting areas of research. This review may suggest directions for further study.
Keeping a Balance During the Pandemic: a Narrative Review on the Important Role of Micronutrients in Preventing Infection and Reducing Complications of COVID-19.
Current nutrition reports. 2021;(3):200-210
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) outbreak has manifested into a major public health concern across the globe, affecting particularly the most vulnerable population groups. Currently, there are various clinical trials being conducted to develop effective treatments. It is estimated that it could take one or more years before these drugs pass all safety tests and concrete results with regard to their effectiveness become available. In addition, despite the recent development of vaccines (licensed for use under conditional licenses) and the commencement of COVID-19 vaccination programs in several countries, there is still a need for safe and novel strategies that may reduce the symptomatology and/or prevent the severe complications associated with COVID-19. Natural compounds previously shown to have antiviral potential should be thoroughly considered and investigated for use in prophylactic treatment of COVID-19 due to their availability and safety. RECENT FINDINGS The current narrative review investigates whether there is evidence in the literature that supplementation with dietary minerals and vitamins may have a role in preventing infection with SARS-CoV-2 or in reducing COVID-19 symptomatology and disease progression. The current evidence from the literature supports that zinc and vitamin C have a potential in reducing the inflammatory response associated with SARS-CoV-2 while folate and vitamin D may have a role in antagonizing the entry of SARs-CoV-2 virus in host calls. Thus, further research should be conducted that could lead to the development of nutritional supplements involving natural and widely available compounds such as zinc, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin D. The latter could be an effective, safe, and inexpensive way to either prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 and/or lessen the burden of COVID-19 disease.
Cohort study to evaluate the effect of vitamin D, magnesium, and vitamin B12 in combination on progression to severe outcomes in older patients with coronavirus (COVID-19).
Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). 2020;:111017
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to determine clinical outcomes of older patients with coronavirus (COVID-19) who received a combination of vitamin D, magnesium, and vitamin B12 (DMB) compared with those who did not. We hypothesized that fewer patients administered this combination would require oxygen therapy, intensive care support, or a combination of both than those who did not. METHODS This was a cohort observational study of all consecutive hospitalized patients ≥50 y of age with COVID-19 in a tertiary academic hospital. Before April 6, 2020, no patients received the (DMB) combination. After this date, patients were administered 1000 IU/d oral vitamin D3, 150 mg/d oral magnesium, and 500 mcg/d oral vitamin B12 upon admission if they did not require oxygen therapy. Primary outcome was deterioration leading to any form of oxygen therapy, intensive care support, or both. RESULTS Between January 15 and April 15, 2020, we identified 43 consecutive patients ≥50 y of age with COVID-19. Seventeen patients received DMB before onset of primary outcome and 26 patients did not. Baseline demographic characteristics between the two groups were significantly different by age. In univariate analysis, age and hypertension had a significant influence on outcome. After adjusting for age or hypertension separately in a multivariate analysis, the intervention group retained protective significance. Fewer treated patients than controls required initiation of oxygen therapy during hospitalization (17.6 vs 61.5%, P = 0.006). DMB exposure was associated with odds ratios of 0.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.59) and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.04-0.93) for oxygen therapy, intensive care support, or both on univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. CONCLUSIONS A vitamin D / magnesium / vitamin B12 combination in older COVID-19 patients was associated with a significant reduction in the proportion of patients with clinical deterioration requiring oxygen support, intensive care support, or both. This study supports further larger randomized controlled trials to ascertain the full benefit of this combination in ameliorating the severity of COVID-19.
Integrative considerations during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Explore (New York, N.Y.). 2020;(6):354-356
Micronutrients as immunomodulatory tools for COVID-19 management.
Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.). 2020;:108545
COVID-19 rapidly turned to a global pandemic posing lethal threats to overwhelming health care capabilities, despite its relatively low mortality rate. The clinical respiratory symptoms include dry cough, fever, anosmia, breathing difficulties, and subsequent respiratory failure. No known cure is available for COVID-19. Apart from the anti-viral strategy, the supports of immune effectors and modulation of immunosuppressive mechanisms is the rationale immunomodulation approach in COVID-19 management. Diet and nutrition are essential for healthy immunity. However, a group of micronutrients plays a dominant role in immunomodulation. The deficiency of most nutrients increases the individual susceptibility to virus infection with a tendency for severe clinical presentation. Despite a shred of evidence, the supplementation of a single nutrient is not promising in the general population. Individuals at high-risk for specific nutrient deficiencies likely benefit from supplementation. The individual dietary and nutritional status assessments are critical for determining the comprehensive actions in COVID-19.