The neurological insights of the emerging coronaviruses.
Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia. 2020;:1-7
Emerging Viral diseases are incredibly infectious and proficient in inducing pandemics. Unlike the previous emerging coronaviruses (ECoVs) which neurological complexities were uncommon, with neurological features exhibition at 14-25 days post-onset, yet with critical outcomes exhibiting >50% mortality in central nervous (CNS) presenting pathologies. The COVID 19 neurological consequences occur more frequently even in mild cases, presenting with CNS involvement in up to 25%, musculoskeletal and peripheral manifestation (PNM). Through preceding ECoVs case reports, the PNM not linked to fatal outcomes, however, required, repeated neuro-imaging as notable CT and MRI changes appeared as late as 21 days while the likelihood of Cerebrospinal fluid to test positive for ECoV was 25%, only in the CNS presenting cases. Owing to 44-60% myalgia presentation, risk of the high inflammatory state, and coagulation cascade abnormalities reported in ECoVs, testing for C-reactive protein, serum creatine kinase, and D-dimer level is mandatory. Presently, there is no antiviral medication or vaccination for the ECoVs, early induction of antiviral drugs remains the backbone of management. Neurologically, the therapeutic dosages of anticoagulants are linked to the high incidence of thrombotic complexities, while methylprednisolone is associated with myopathy. Future studies expected to apply more neuro-imaging techniques for CNS exploration and further explore the pathogenesis of the COVID 19 myalgia, anosmia/ageusia reported in the majority of the initial cases.