Emerging agents for the treatment and prevention of stroke: progress in clinical trials.
Expert opinion on investigational drugs. 2021;(10):1025-1035
INTRODUCTION Recent years have witnessed unprecedented progress in stroke care, but unmet needs persist regarding the efficacy of acute treatment and secondary prevention. Novel approaches are being tested to enhance the efficacy of thrombolysis or provide neuroprotection in non-thrombolized patients. AREAS COVERED The current review highlights pharmaceutical agents under evaluation in clinical trials concerning the acute, subacute, and chronic phase post-stroke. We examine the evidence in favor of tenecteplase as an alternative thrombolytic drug to alteplase, nerinetide as a promising neuroprotective agent, and glibenclamide for reducing edema in malignant hemispheric infarction. We discuss the use of ticagrelor and the promising novel category of factor XI inhibitors in the subacute phase after stroke. We offer our insights on combined rivaroxaban and antiplatelet therapy, PCSK-9 inhibitors, and other non-statin hypolipidemic agents, as well as novel antidiabetic agents that have been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in the long-term. EXPERT OPINION Current approaches in stroke treatment and stroke prevention have already transformed stroke care from a linear one-for-all treatment paradigm to a more individualized approach that targets specific patient subgroups with novel pharmaceutical agents. This tendency enriches the therapeutic armamentarium with novel agents developed for specific stroke subgroups. ABBREVIATIONS IVT: intravenous thrombolysis; RCTs: randomized-controlled clinical trials; TNK: Tenecteplase; COVID-19: Coronavirus 2019 Disease; EXTEND-IA TNK The Tenecteplase versus Alteplase Before Endovascular Therapy for Ischemic Stroke trial; AIS: acute ischemic stroke; NNT: number needed to treat; MT: mechanical thrombectomy; sICH: symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage; mRS: modified Rankin Scale; AHA/ASA: American Heart Association/American Stroke Association; ESO: European Stroke Organization; NA-1: Nerinetide; ENACT Evaluating Neuroprotection in Aneurysm Coiling Therapy; CTA: CT angiography; TIA: transient ischemic attack; CHANCE Clopidogrel in High-risk patients with Acute Non-disabling Cerebrovascular Events; LOF: loss-of-function; PRINCE Platelet Reactivity in Acute Nondisabling Cerebrovascular Events; THALES Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated with Ticagrelor and ASA [acetylsalicylic acid] for Prevention of Stroke and Death; CHANCE-2: Clopidogrel With Aspirin in High-risk Patients With Acute Non-disabling Cerebrovascular Events II; FXI: Factor XI; PACIFIC-STROKE Program of Anticoagulation via Inhibition of FXIa by the Oral Compound BAY 2433334-NonCardioembolic Stroke study; COMPASS Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies; CANTOS-ICAD: Combination Antithrombotic Treatment for Prevention of Recurrent Ischemic Stroke in Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease; SAMMPRIS Stenting and Aggressive Medical Therapy for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis; WASID Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease; SPARCL Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TST: Treat Stroke to Target; IMPROVE-IT: Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial; PCSK9: proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9; FOURIER Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk; CLEAR Cholesterol Lowering via Bempedoic acid, an ACL-inhibiting Regimen; REDUCE-IT: Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA Intervention Trial; STRENGTH Outcomes Study to Assess STatin Residual Risk Reduction With EpaNova in HiGh CV Risk PatienTs With Hypertriglyceridemia; ACCORD Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes; ADVANCE Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation; VADT Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial; GLP-1R: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor; SGLT2: sodium-glucose cotransporter 2; CONVINCE COlchicine for preventioN of Vascular Inflammation in Non-CardioEmbolic stroke; PROBE Prospective Randomized Open-label Blinded Endpoint assessment.
The importance of vitamin d metabolism as a potential prophylactic, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective treatment for COVID-19.
Journal of translational medicine. 2020;(1):322
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. As of May 18, 2020, there have been more than 4.7 million cases and over 316,000 deaths worldwide. COVID-19 is caused by a highly infectious novel coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), leading to an acute infectious disease with mild-to-severe clinical symptoms such as flu-like symptoms, fever, headache, dry cough, muscle pain, loss of smell and taste, increased shortness of breath, bilateral viral pneumonia, conjunctivitis, acute respiratory distress syndromes, respiratory failure, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), sepsis, etc. While physicians and scientists have yet to discover a treatment, it is imperative that we urgently address 2 questions: how to prevent infection in immunologically naive individuals and how to treat severe symptoms such as CRS, acute respiratory failure, and the loss of somatosensation. Previous studies from the 1918 influenza pandemic have suggested vitamin D's non-classical role in reducing lethal pneumonia and case fatality rates. Recent clinical trials also reported that vitamin D supplementation can reduce incidence of acute respiratory infection and the severity of respiratory tract diseases in adults and children. According to our literature search, there are no similar findings of clinical trials that have been published as of July 1st, 2020, in relation to the supplementation of vitamin D in the potential prevention and treatment for COVID-19. In this review, we summarize the potential role of vitamin D extra-renal metabolism in the prevention and treatment of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, helping to bring us slightly closer to fulfilling that goal. We will focus on 3 major topics here: 1. Vitamin D might aid in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection: Vitamin D: Overview of Renal and Extra-renal metabolism and regulation. Vitamin D: Overview of molecular mechanism and multifaceted functions beyond skeletal homeostasis. Vitamin D: Overview of local immunomodulation in human infectious diseases. Anti-viral infection. Anti-malaria and anti-systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). 2. Vitamin D might act as a strong immunosuppressant inhibiting cytokine release syndrome in COVID-19: Vitamin D: Suppression of key pro-inflammatory pathways including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). 3. Vitamin D might prevent loss of neural sensation in COVID-19 by stimulating expression of neurotrophins like Nerve Growth Factor (NGF): Vitamin D: Induction of key neurotrophic factors. .