Lifestyle-mediated nitric oxide boost to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection: A perspective.
Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry. 2021;:55-61
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide and has seriously threatened public health by causing significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with preexisting endothelial dysfunction caused by aging, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity are at high risk for life-threatening thromboembolic complications. This suggests a possibility that reduced endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production and NO bioavailability could be a common underlying pathology for the progression of COVID-19. Increasingly, evidence from experimental and clinical studies of SARS-CoV-2 infection shows that NO inhibits the pathogenesis of COVID-19, including virus entry into host cells, viral replication, host immune response, and subsequent thromboembolic complications. Restoring NO bioavailability may have the potential to be a preventive or early-treatment option for COVID-19. This review aims to provide in-depth discussion of NO bioavailability to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly by focusing on lifestyle factors such as nitrate-rich diets, physical exercise, and nasal breathing, which could be easily performed on a daily basis to boost NO bioavailability.
Effects of antiviral drug therapy on dynamic thiol/disulphide homeostasis and nitric oxide levels in COVID-19 patients.
European journal of pharmacology. 2021;:174306
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to a serious global pandemic. Although an oxidative stress imbalance occurs in COVID-19 patients, the contributions of thiol/disulphide homeostasis and nitric oxide (NO) generation to the pathogenesis of COVID-19 have been poorly identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of antiviral drug therapy on the serum dynamics of thiol/disulphide homeostasis and NO levels in COVID-19 patients. A total of 50 adult patients with COVID-19 and 43 sex-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled in this prospective study. Venous blood samples were collected immediately on admission to the hospital within 24 h after the diagnosis (pre-treatment) and at the 15th day of drug therapy (post-treatment). Serum native thiol and total thiol levels were measured, and the amounts of dynamic disulphide bonds and related ratios were calculated. The average pre-treatment total and native thiol levels were significantly lower than the post-treatment values (P < 0.001 for all). We observed no significant changes in disulphide levels or disulphide/total thiol, disulphide/native thiol, or native thiol/total thiol ratios between pre- and post-treatments. There was also a significant increase in serum NO levels in the pre-treatment values when compared to control (P < 0.001) and post-treatment measurements (P < 0.01). Our results strongly suggest that thiol/disulphide homeostasis and nitrosative stress can contribute to the pathogenesis of COVID-19. This study was the first to show that antiviral drug therapy can prevent the depletion in serum thiol levels and decrease serum NO levels in COVID-19 patients.
Does eNOS derived nitric oxide protect the young from severe COVID-19 complications?
Ageing research reviews. 2020;:101201
The COVID-19 pandemic poses an imminent threat to humanity, especially to the elderly. The molecular mechanisms underpinning the age-dependent disparity for disease progression is not clear. COVID-19 is both a respiratory and a vascular disease in severe patients. The damage endothelial system provides a good explanation for the various complications seen in COVID-19 patients. These observations lead us to suspect that endothelial cells are a barrier that must be breached before progression to severe disease. Endothelial intracellular defences are largely dependent of the activation of the interferon (IFN) system. Nevertheless, low type I and III IFNs are generally observed in COVID-19 patients suggesting that other intracellular viral defence systems are also activated to protect the young. Intriguingly, Nitric oxide (NO), which is the main intracellular antiviral defence, has been shown to inhibit a wide array of viruses, including SARS-CoV-1. Additionally, the increased risk of death with diseases that have underlying endothelial dysfunction suggest that endothelial NOS-derived nitric oxide could be the main defence mechanism. NO decreases dramatically in the elderly, the hyperglycaemic and the patients with low levels of vitamin D. However, eNOS derived NO occurs at low levels, unless it is during inflammation and co-stimulated by bradykinin. Regrettably, the bradykinin-induced vasodilation also progressively declines with age, thereby decreasing anti-viral NO production as well. Intriguingly, the inverse correlation between the percentage of WT eNOS haplotype and death per 100K population could potentially explain the disparity of COVID-19 mortality between Asian and non-Asian countries. These changes with age, low bradykinin and NO, may be the fundamental reasons that intracellular innate immunity declines with age leading to more severe COVID-19 complications.