Effects of Micronutrients or Conditional Amino Acids on COVID-19-Related Outcomes: An Evidence Analysis Center Scoping Review.
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2021;(7):1354-1363
Recent narrative reviews have described the potential efficacy of providing individuals infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with additional micronutrients to reduce disease severity. Although there are compelling reasons why providing additional micronutrients or conditional amino acids may affect COVID-19-related outcomes, evidence is lacking. The objective of this scoping review is to explore and describe the literature examining the effect of providing additional micronutrients or conditional amino acids (glutamine, arginine) in adults with conditions or infections similar to COVID-19 infection on COVID-19-related health outcomes. A literature search of the MEDLINE database and hand search of Cochrane Database of systematic reviews retrieved 1,423 unique studies, and 8 studies were included in this scoping review. Four studies examined a target population with ventilator-related pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and the other 4 studies included patients who were at risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia. Interventions included intravenous ascorbic acid, intramuscular cholecalciferol, enteral and intramuscular vitamin E, enteral zinc sulfate, and oral and parenteral glutamine. In 6 of the 8 included studies, baseline status of the nutrient of interest was not reported and, thus, it is uncertain how outcomes may vary in the context of nutrient deficiency or insufficiency compared with sufficiency. In the absence of direct evidence examining efficacy of providing additional micronutrients or conditional amino acids to standard care, registered dietitian nutritionists must rely on clinical expertise and indirect evidence to guide medical nutrition therapy for patients infected with COVID-19.
Coronavirus Disease 19 from the Perspective of Ageing with Focus on Nutritional Status and Nutrition Management-A Narrative Review.
The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (COVID-19) has hit older adults harder due to a combination of age-related immunological and metabolic alterations. The aim of this review was to analyze the COVID-19 literature with respect to nutritional status and nutrition management in older adults. No studies only on people aged 65+ years were found, and documentation on those 80+ was rare. Age was found to be strongly associated with worse outcomes, and with poor nutritional status. Prevalence of malnutrition was high among severely and critically ill patients. The studies found a need for nutrition screening and management, and for nutrition support as part of follow-up after a hospital stay. Most tested screening tools showed high sensitivity in identifying nutritional risk, but none were recognized as best for screening older adults with COVID-19. For diagnosing malnutrition, the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria are recommended but were not used in the studies found. Documentation of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in relation to nutritional status is missing in older adults. Other COVID-19-associated factors with a possible impact on nutritional status are poor appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms. Vitamin D is the nutrient that has attracted the most interest. However, evidence for supplementation of COVID-19 patients is still limited and inconclusive.
Nutrition Support During Prone Positioning: An Old Technique Reawakened by COVID-19.
Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 2021;(1):105-109
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complex disease characterized by inflammation, resulting in diffuse alveolar damage, proliferation, and fibrosis, and carries a high mortality rate. Recently, the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has overwhelmed healthcare systems worldwide, as many patients have required hospitalization for the management of respiratory failure similar in nature to ARDS. In addition to lung-protective ventilation strategies aimed to maintain an oxygen saturation >90%, a ratio of partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen >200, a pH of 7.25-7.40, and a plateau pressure <35 cm H2 O, prone positioning has emerged as an effective treatment strategy for severe ARDS by improving oxygenation and secretion clearance. Although early nutrition assessment and intervention are recommended for acutely and critically ill patients, rotational therapy may present challenges in providing this care. Here, we will describe the pathophysiology of ARDS and the rationale for use of prone positioning and review the considerations and challenges of providing nutrition therapy for patients in the prone position.
Nutritional perspectives for the prevention and mitigation of COVID-19.
Nutrition reviews. 2021;(3):289-300
Worldwide, there is an array of clinical trials under way to evaluate treatment options against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Concurrently, several nutritional therapies and alternative supportive treatments are also being used and tested to reduce the mortality associated with acute respiratory distress in patients with COVID-19. In the context of COVID-19, improved nutrition that includes micronutrient supplementation to augment the immune system has been recognized as a viable approach to both prevent and alleviate the severity of the infection. The potential role of micronutrients as immune-boosting agents is particularly relevant for low- and middle-income countries, which already have an existing high burden of undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. A systematic literature review was performed to identify nutritional interventions that might prevent or aid in the recovery from COVID-19. The PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were searched electronically from February to April 2020. All abstracts and full-text articles were examined for their relevance to this review. The information gathered was collated under various categories. Deficiencies of micronutrients, especially vitamins A, B complex, C, and D, zinc, iron, and selenium, are common among vulnerable populations in general and among COVID-19 patients in particular and could plausibly increase the risk of mortality. Judicious use of need-based micronutrient supplementation, alongside existing micronutrient fortification programs, is warranted in the current global pandemic, especially in low- and middle-income economies.
COvid-19 and high-dose VITamin D supplementation TRIAL in high-risk older patients (COVIT-TRIAL): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
BACKGROUND With the lack of effective therapy, chemoprevention, and vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, focusing on the immediate repurposing of existing drugs gives hope of curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. A recent unbiased genomics-guided tracing of the SARS-CoV-2 targets in human cells identified vitamin D among the three top-scoring molecules manifesting potential infection mitigation patterns. Growing pre-clinical and epidemiological observational data support this assumption. We hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation may improve the prognosis of COVID-19. The aim of this trial is to compare the effect of a single oral high dose of cholecalciferol versus a single oral standard dose on all-cause 14-day mortality rate in COVID-19 older adults at higher risk of worsening. METHODS The COVIT-TRIAL study is an open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled superiority trial. Patients aged ≥ 65 years with COVID-19 (diagnosed within the preceding 3 days with RT-PCR and/or chest CT scan) and at least one worsening risk factor at the time of inclusion (i.e., age ≥ 75 years, or SpO2 ≤ 94% in room air, or PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mmHg), having no contraindications to vitamin D supplementation, and having received no vitamin D supplementation > 800 IU/day during the preceding month are recruited. Participants are randomized either to high-dose cholecalciferol (two 200,000 IU drinking vials at once on the day of inclusion) or to standard-dose cholecalciferol (one 50,000 IU drinking vial on the day of inclusion). Two hundred sixty participants are recruited and followed up for 28 days. The primary outcome measure is all-cause mortality within 14 days of inclusion. Secondary outcomes are the score changes on the World Health Organization Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement (OSCI) scale for COVID-19, and the between-group comparison of safety. These outcomes are assessed at baseline, day 14, and day 28, together with the serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, creatinine, calcium, and albumin at baseline and day 7. DISCUSSION COVIT-TRIAL is to our knowledge the first randomized controlled trial testing the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the prognosis of COVID-19 in high-risk older patients. High-dose vitamin D supplementation may be an effective, well-tolerated, and easily and immediately accessible treatment for COVID-19, the incidence of which increases dramatically and for which there are currently no scientifically validated treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04344041 . Registered on 14 April 2020 TRIAL STATUS Recruiting. Recruitment is expected to be completed in April 2021.
A Review of Nutrition Support Guidelines for Individuals with or Recovering from COVID-19 in the Community.
COVID-19 negatively impacts nutritional status and as such identification of nutritional risk and consideration of the need for nutrition support should be fundamental in this patient group. In recent months, clinical nutrition professional organisations across the world have published nutrition support recommendations for health care professionals. This review summarises key themes of those publications linked to nutrition support of adults with or recovering from COVID-19 outside of hospital. Using our search criteria, 15 publications were identified from electronic databases and websites of clinical nutrition professional organisations, worldwide up to 19th June 2020. The key themes across these publications included the importance in the community setting of: (i) screening for malnutrition, which can be achieved by remote consultation; (ii) care plans with appropriate nutrition support, which may include food based strategies, oral nutritional supplements and referral to a dietitian; (iii) continuity of nutritional care between settings including rapid communication at discharge of malnutrition risk and requirements for ongoing nutrition support. These themes, and indeed the importance of nutritional care, are fundamental and should be integrated into pathways for the rehabilitation of patients recovering from COVID-19.
Nutrition Support in the ICU-A Refresher in the Era of COVID-19.
The American journal of gastroenterology. 2020;(9):1367-1370
Nutritional management of COVID-19 patients in a rehabilitation unit.
European journal of clinical nutrition. 2020;(6):860-863