Potential roles of micronutrient deficiency and immune system dysfunction in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). 2021;:111047
Preliminary studies indicate that a robust immune response across different cell types is crucial in recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). An enormous number of investigations point to the vital importance of various micronutrients in the interactions between the host immune system and viruses, including COVID-19. There are complex and multifaceted links among micronutrient status, the host immune response, and the virulence of pathogenic viruses. Micronutrients play a critical role in the coordinated recruitment of innate and adaptive immune responses to viral infections, particularly in the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory host responses. Furthermore, inadequate amounts of micronutrients not only weaken the immune system in combating viral infections, but also contribute to the emergence of more virulent strains via alterations of the genetic makeup of the viral genome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evidence that suggests the contribution of micronutrients in the spread as well as the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19. Both the presence of micronutrient deficiencies among infected individuals and the effect of micronutrient supplementation on the immune responses and overall outcome of the disease could be of great interest when weighing the use of micronutrients in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infection. These investigations could be of great value in dealing with future viral epidemics.
The relationship between nutritional status and the prognosis of COVID-19: A retrospective analysis of 63 patients.
It is important for patients to maintain a good nutritional status as a health promotion strategy to improve the immune function and thus the prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).The objective of this retrospective study is to analyze the relationships of nutritional status with inflammation levels, protein reserves, baseline immune status, severity, length of hospital stay, and prognosis of COVID-19 patients.A total of 63 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the People's Hospital and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of the Xinzhou District, Wuhan, China, from January 29, 2020 to March 17, 2020. Sixty-three patients were divided into 3 groups according to the guidelines, moderate (n = 22), severe (n = 14), and critical (n = 25), respectively. The differences in the total nutrition risk screening (NRS) score, inflammation level, protein reserve, baseline immune status, length of hospital stay, and prognosis were compared among patients with moderate, severe, and critical COVID-19.Patients with higher NRS scores tend to have more severe COVID-19, higher C-reactive protein and serum procalcitonin levels, higher white blood cell counts, lower lymphocyte counts, and higher mortality rates (P < .05).Nutritional status may be an indirect factor of the severity and prognosis of COVID-19.
Let food be the medicine, but not for coronavirus: Nutrition and food science, telling myths from facts.
Journal of population therapeutics and clinical pharmacology = Journal de la therapeutique des populations et de la pharmacologie clinique. 2020;(S Pt 1):e1-e4
The entire globe is facing a dangerous pandemic due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The medical and scientific community is trying to figure out and adopt effective strategies that can lead to (i) preventing virus expansion; (ii) identifying medications for the management of critical care and reducing rates of mortality; and (iii) finally discovering the highly anticipated vaccine. Nutritional interventions have attained considerable scientific evidence in disease prevention and treatment. The main question, "What is the role of nutrition and food science in this scenario?" requires urgent answer as many theories suggesting that specific food or dietary supplements can fight coronavirus infection have received extensive coverage in most popular social media platforms. In this editorial, we focus on some frequent statements on the role of nutrition and food science in the battle against COVID-19, distinguishing between myths and facts. We highlight that social distancing and hygiene precautions are the best practices for reducing the risk of COVID-19 transmission. We further underline the importance of nutrition in its wholistic concept, pointing out the risk of unproven dietary options that could lead individuals to weaken effective precautionary measures.