An Overview of Systematic Reviews of the Role of Vitamin D on Inflammation in Patients with Diabetes and the Potentiality of Its Application on Diabetic Patients with COVID-19.
International journal of molecular sciences. 2022;(5)
Almost two years have passed since the outbreak reported for the first time in Wuhan of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 coronavirus, rapidly evolved into a pandemic. This infectious disease has stressed global health care systems. The mortality rate is higher, particularly in elderly population and in patients with comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, chronic renal disease, and malignancy. Among them, subjects with diabetes have a high risk of developing severe form of COVID-19 and show increased mortality. How diabetes contributes to COVID-19 severity remains unclear. It has been hypothesized that it may be correlated with the effects of hyperglycemia on systemic inflammatory responses and immune system dysfunction. Vitamin D (VD) is a modulator of immune-response. Data from literature showed that vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19 patients increases COVID-19 severity, likely because of its negative impact on immune and inflammatory responses. Therefore, the use of vitamin D might play a role in some aspects of the infection, particularly the inflammatory state and the immune system function of patients. Moreover, a piece of evidence highlighted a link among vitamin D deficiency, obesity and diabetes, all factors associated with COVID-19 severity. Given this background, we performed an overview of the systematic reviews to assess the association between vitamin D supplementation and inflammatory markers in patients with diabetes; furthermore, vitamin D's possible role in COVID-19 patients was assessed as well. Three databases, namely MEDLINE, PubMed Central and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, were reviewed to retrieve the pertinent data. The aim of this review is to provide insight into the recent advances about the molecular basis of the relationship between vitamin D, immune response, inflammation, diabetes and COVID-19.
Understanding the Co-Epidemic of Obesity and COVID-19: Current Evidence, Comparison with Previous Epidemics, Mechanisms, and Preventive and Therapeutic Perspectives.
Current obesity reports. 2021;(3):214-243
PURPOSE OF REVIEW A growing body of evidence suggests that obesity and increased visceral adiposity are strongly and independently linked to adverse outcomes and death due to COVID-19. This review summarizes current epidemiologic data, highlights pathogenetic mechanisms on the association between excess body weight and COVID-19, compares data from previous pandemics, discusses why COVID-19 challenges the "obesity paradox," and presents implications in prevention and treatment as well as future perspectives. RECENT FINDINGS Data from meta-analyses based on recent observational studies have indicated that obesity increases the risks of infection from SARS-CoV-2, severe infection and hospitalization, admission to the ICU and need of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), and the risk of mortality, particularly in severe obesity. The risks of IMV and mortality associated with obesity are accentuated in younger individuals (age ≤ 50 years old). The meta-inflammation in obesity intersects with and exacerbates underlying pathogenetic mechanisms in COVID-19 through the following mechanisms and factors: (i) impaired innate and adaptive immune responses; (ii) chronic inflammation and oxidative stress; (iii) endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and aberrant activation of the complement; (iv) overactivation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; (v) overexpression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in the adipose tissue; (vi) associated cardiometabolic comorbidities; (vii) vitamin D deficiency; (viii) gut dysbiosis; and (ix) mechanical and psychological issues. Mechanistic and large epidemiologic studies using big data sources with omics data exploring genetic determinants of risk and disease severity as well as large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are necessary to shed light on the pathways connecting chronic subclinical inflammation/meta-inflammation with adverse COVID-19 outcomes and establish the ideal preventive and therapeutic approaches for patients with obesity.
Diabetes, obesity, metabolism, and SARS-CoV-2 infection: the end of the beginning.
Cell metabolism. 2021;(3):479-498
The increased prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors in people hospitalized with severe COVID-19 illness has engendered considerable interest in the metabolic aspects of SARS-CoV-2-induced pathophysiology. Here, I update concepts informing how metabolic disorders and their co-morbidities modify the susceptibility to, natural history, and potential treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a focus on human biology. New data informing genetic predisposition, epidemiology, immune responses, disease severity, and therapy of COVID-19 in people with obesity and diabetes are highlighted. The emerging relationships of metabolic disorders to viral-induced immune responses and viral persistence, and the putative importance of adipose and islet ACE2 expression, glycemic control, cholesterol metabolism, and glucose- and lipid-lowering drugs is reviewed, with attention to controversies and unresolved questions. Rapid progress in these areas informs our growing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with diabetes and obesity, while refining the therapeutic strategies and research priorities in this vulnerable population.
COVID-19: Are Non-Communicable Diseases Risk Factors for Its Severity?
American journal of health promotion : AJHP. 2021;(5):720-729
OBJECTIVE To identify and describe the mechanisms of lifestyle characteristics-obesity, DM, hypertension and physical inactivity-that may lead to the severity of illness among individuals with COVID-19. DATA SOURCE A scoping review was conducted by searching electronic databases of PubMed and Scopus from December 2019 to August 2020. INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA inclusion criteria were studies that explicitly describe the mechanism of COVID-19 in relationship with either hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM), obesity and/or physical inactivity. Studies of epidemiological background, descriptive surveys and interventional studies were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION study characteristics were tabulated according to purpose, type of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), the hypothesis on the mechanism of infestation (MOI) and conclusion. DATA SYNTHESIS NCDs were categorized according to type and hypothesis on mechanisms of infestation. The interplay between COVID-19, type of NCDs and MOI leading to the severity of the disease was appraised. RESULTS Twenty-four (24) studies were identified from 357 unique records. Eight studies postulated the mechanism of infestation and interaction between COVID 19 illness severity and Obesity, while 7 studies described COVID-19 and DM. Five studies highlighted the interaction between COVID-19 and hypertension with 4 studies showing how physical activity restriction suppresses immunity. CONCLUSION The current review, identified and explicitly described the mechanisms of the lifestyle characteristics that may increase the severity of illness among people with COVID-19.
COVID Obesity: A One-Year Narrative Review.
On 11 March 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study focuses on a narrative review about the illness during the first year of the pandemic in relation to obesity. Databases were used to search studies published up to 8 December 2020. In total, 4430 articles and other scientific literature were found, and 24 articles were included in this one-year narrative review. The mean BMI value of severe COVID-19 patients ranged from 24.5 to 33.4 kg/m2, versus <18.5 to 24.3 kg/m2 for non-severe patients. Articles using the terms obesity or overweight without indicating the BMI value in these patients were common, but this is not useful, as the anthropometric parameters, when not defined by this index, are confusing due to the classification being different in the West compared to among Asian and Korean criteria-based adults. We proposed a new term, called COVID obesity, to define the importance of this anthropometric parameter, among others, in relation with this pandemic.
Obesity and clinical severity in patients with COVID-19: a scoping review protocol.
Systematic reviews. 2021;(1):51
BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 strain, was first identified in late 2019 in China. The outcomes of patients affected by the virus can worsen, developing acute respiratory failure and other serious complications, especially in older individuals and people with obesity and comorbidities. Thus, obese patients tend to have a more severe course of COVID-19. Thus, this review aims to synthesize the evidence in the literature that associates COVID-19 and the severity of clinical outcomes in infected obese patients. METHODS This protocol was designed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols Statement. Scientific and gray literature will be systematically selected from PubMed/MEDLINE, Latin American Literature in Health Sciences, Online Scientific Electronic Library, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane. The selection of articles will be limited to studies published in English, Portuguese, and Spanish from December 2019 onwards. The main clinical outcomes will be clinical severity in obese patients with COVID-19 as tachypnea (respiratory rate, ≥ 30 breaths per minute), hypoxemia (oxygen saturation, ≤ 93%), the ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (< 300), lung infiltrate (> 50% of the lung field involved within 24-48 h), diagnosis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome, need of invasive mechanical ventilation, and mortality. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract data. Selection bias will be minimized by excluding studies published before December 2019. Conflicts will be resolved through a third reviewer and consensus-building. Moreover, findings will be reported using narrative synthesis and tabulation of the summaries. DISCUSSION Given the need for early detection of the possible implications and treatment for patients with obesity diagnosed with COVID-19, the scoping review will be useful to capture the state of the current literature, identify the gaps, and make recommendations for future research for directing the conduct and optimization of therapies in these patients by the multiprofessional teams. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/xrkec.
Obesity, malnutrition, and trace element deficiency in the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic: An overview.
Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). 2021;:111016
The world is currently facing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic which places great pressure on health care systems and workers, often presents with severe clinical features, and sometimes requires admission into intensive care units. Derangements in nutritional status, both for obesity and malnutrition, are relevant for the clinical outcome in acute illness. Systemic inflammation, immune system impairment, sarcopenia, and preexisting associated conditions, such as respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases related to obesity, could act as crucial factors linking nutritional status and the course and outcome of COVID-19. Nevertheless, vitamins and trace elements play an essential role in modulating immune response and inflammatory status. Overall, evaluation of the patient's nutritional status is not negligible for its implications on susceptibility, course, severity, and responsiveness to therapies, in order to perform a tailored nutritional intervention as an integral part of the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The aim of this study was to review the current data on the relevance of nutritional status, including trace elements and vitamin status, in influencing the course and outcome of the disease 3 mo after the World Health Organization's declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic.
Obesity as a Risk Factor for Severe COVID-19: Summary of the Best Evidence and Implications for Health Care.
Current obesity reports. 2021;(3):282-289
PURPOSE OF REVIEW To collate the best evidence from several strands-epidemiological, genetic, comparison with historical data and mechanistic information-and ask whether obesity is an important causal and potentially modifiable risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS Several hundred studies provide powerful evidence that body mass index (BMI) is a strong linear risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes, with recent studies suggesting ~5-10% higher risk for COVID-19 hospitalisation per every kg/m2 higher BMI. Genetic data concur with hazard ratios increasing by 14% per every kg/m2 higher BMI. BMI to COVID-19 links differ markedly from prior BMI-infection associations and are further supported as likely causal by multiple biologically plausible pathways. Excess adiposity appears to be an important, modifiable risk factor for adverse COVID-19 outcomes across all ethnicities. The pandemic is also worsening obesity levels. It is imperative that medical systems worldwide meet this challenge by upscaling investments in obesity prevention and treatments.
Obesity, vitamin D deficiency and old age a serious combination with respect to coronavirus disease-2019 severity and outcome.
Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. 2021;(1):18-24
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Old age, obesity and vitamin D deficiency are considered as independent risk factors for severe courses of COVID-19. The aim of the review is to discuss common features of these risk factors and the impact of vitamin D. RECENT FINDINGS The recently discovered relationship between vitamin D and the infection pathway of the virus via the renin--angiotensin system (RAS) and the adipokines leptin and adiponectin play an important role. The frequency of studies showing a relationship between a low vitamin D status in comorbidities and severe COVID-19 courses makes an impact of vitamin D effects likely. SUMMARY There is a direct relationship between vitamin D, body fat and age in COVID-19 courses. With age, the ability of the skin to synthesize vitamin D decreases, and leads to vitamin D-deficits. If the skin is insufficiently exposed to sunlight, severe deficits can develop. As vitamin D plays an important role not only in the immune system but also in the RAS, and thus at the point where the virus attacks, a good vitamin D supply is an important basis for reducing the risk of severe COVID-19 processes. Treatment with vitamin D supplements should be based on severity of the vitamin D deficiency.
The Role of Nutrition in COVID-19 Susceptibility and Severity of Disease: A Systematic Review.
The Journal of nutrition. 2021;(7):1854-1878
BACKGROUND Many nutrients have powerful immunomodulatory actions with the potential to alter susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, progression to symptoms, likelihood of severe disease, and survival. OBJECTIVE The aim was to review the latest evidence on how malnutrition across all its forms (under- and overnutrition and micronutrient status) may influence both susceptibility to, and progression of, COVID-19. METHODS We synthesized information on 13 nutrition-related components and their potential interactions with COVID-19: overweight, obesity, and diabetes; protein-energy malnutrition; anemia; vitamins A, C, D, and E; PUFAs; iron; selenium; zinc; antioxidants; and nutritional support. For each section we provide: 1) a landscape review of pertinent material; 2) a systematic search of the literature in PubMed and EMBASE databases, including a wide range of preprint servers; and 3) a screen of 6 clinical trial registries. All original research was considered, without restriction to study design, and included if it covered: 1) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV) 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), or SARS-CoV viruses and 2) disease susceptibility or 3) disease progression, and 4) the nutritional component of interest. Searches took place between 16 May and 11 August 2020. RESULTS Across the 13 searches, 2732 articles from PubMed and EMBASE, 4164 articles from the preprint servers, and 433 trials were returned. In the final narrative synthesis, we include 22 published articles, 38 preprint articles, and 79 trials. CONCLUSIONS Currently there is limited evidence that high-dose supplements of micronutrients will either prevent severe disease or speed up recovery. However, results of clinical trials are eagerly awaited. Given the known impacts of all forms of malnutrition on the immune system, public health strategies to reduce micronutrient deficiencies and undernutrition remain of critical importance. Furthermore, there is strong evidence that prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes will reduce the risk of serious COVID-19 outcomes. This review is registered at PROSPERO as CRD42020186194.