Phytonutrient and Nutraceutical Action against COVID-19: Current Review of Characteristics and Benefits.
The trend toward using phytonutrients and/or nutraceuticals (P/Ns) with the aim of impacting immune health has increased in recent years. The main reason is that properties of P/Ns are associated with possible immunomodulating effects in the prevention and complementary treatment of viral diseases, including COVID-19 and other respiratory infections. In the present review, we assess the scientific plausibility of specific P/Ns for this purpose of preventative and therapeutic interventions against COVID-19, with an emphasis on safety, validity, and evidence of efficacy against other viruses. Five potential candidates have been identified after reviewing available studies (in silico, in vitro, and in vivo) in which certain flavonoids have demonstrated a potential for use as adjuvant therapeutic agents against viral infections, including COVID-19. As these are often better tolerated than pharmacological treatments, their use could be more widely considered if additional detailed studies can validate the existing evidence.
Micronutrients and bioactive substances: Their potential roles in combating COVID-19.
Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). 2021;:111103
OBJECTIVES The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is seriously threatening public health and setting off huge economic crises across the world. In the absence of specific drugs for COVID-19, there is an urgent need to look for alternative approaches. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to review the roles of micronutrients and bioactive substances as potential alternative approaches in combating COVID-19. METHODS This review was based on the literature identified using electronic searches in different databases. RESULTS Vitamins (A, B, C, D, and E), minerals (selenium and zinc), and bioactive substances from curcumin, echinacea, propolis, garlic, soybean, green tea, and other polyphenols were identified as having potential roles in interfering with spike glycoproteins, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, and transmembrane protease serine 2 at the entry site, and inhibiting activities of papain-like protease, 3 chymotrypsin-like protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the replication cycle of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Having immunomodulating, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral properties, such micronutrients and bioactive substances are consequently promising alterative nutritional approaches to combat COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS The roles of micronutrients and bioactive substances in the fight against COVID-19 are exciting areas of research. This review may suggest directions for further study.
Computational Lock and Key and Dynamic Trajectory Analysis of Natural Biophors Against COVID-19 Spike Protein to Identify Effective Lead Molecules.
Molecular biotechnology. 2021;(10):898-908
New pandemic infection of coronaviridae family virus spread to more than 210 countries with total infection of 1,136,851 and 62,955 (4.6%) deaths until 5th April 2020. Which stopped the regular cycle of humankind but the nature is consistently running. There is no micro molecule remedy found yet to restore the regular life of people. Hence, we decided to work on natural biophores against the COVID proteins. As a first step, major phytoconstituents of antiviral herbs like Leucas aspera, Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa, Piper nigrum, Ocimum tenuiflorum, and Corallium rubrum collected and performed the lock and key analysis with major spike protein of COVID-19 to find the best fitting lead biophore using computational drug design platform. The results of protocol run showed, phytoconstituents of Morinda citrifolia and Leucas aspera were found lower binding energy range of - 55.18 to - 25.34 kcal/mol, respectively and compared with Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) (- 24.29 kcal/mol) and Remdesivir (- 25.38 kcal/mol). The results conclude that, core skeletons chromen, anthracene 9, 11 dione and long-chain alkyl acids/ester-containing biophores showen high stable antagonistic affinity with S-protein. Which leads the breakdown of spike protein and ACE2 receptor complex formation and host mechanism of corono virus. In addition, the dynamic trajectory analysis confirmed the complete denaturation of spike protein by the molecule 4-(24-hydroxy-1-oxo-5-n-propyltetracosanyl)-phenol from Leucas aspera and stability of spike-ligand complex. These biophores will aid the researcher to fabricate new promising analogue and being recommended to assess its COVID-19 treatment.
Potential roles of medicinal plants for the treatment of viral diseases focusing on COVID-19: A review.
Phytotherapy research : PTR. 2021;(3):1298-1312
The whole world is entangled by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), people are dying in thousands each day, and without an actual medication, it seems not possible for the bringing this global health crisis to a stop. Natural products have been in constant use since ancient times and are proven by time to be effective. Crude extract or pure compounds isolated from medicinal plants and/or herbs such as Artemisia annua, Agastache rugosa, Astragalus membranaceus, Cassia alata, Ecklonia cava, Gymnema sylvestre, Glycyrrhizae uralensis, Houttuynia cordata, Lindera aggregata, Lycoris radiata, Mollugo cerviana, Polygonum multiflorum, Pyrrosia lingua, Saposhnikoviae divaricate, Tinospora cordifolia etc. have shown promising inhibitory effect against coronavirus. Several molecules, including acacetin, amentoflavone, allicin, blancoxanthone, curcumin, daidzein, diosmin, epigallocatechin-gallate, emodin, hesperidin, herbacetin, hirsutenone, iguesterin, jubanine G, kaempferol, lycorine, pectolinarin, phloroeckol, silvestrol, tanshinone I, taxifolin, rhoifolin, xanthoangelol E, zingerol etc. isolated from plants could also be potential drug candidates against COVID-19. Moreover, these could also show promising inhibitory effects against influenza-parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Here, we have reported 93 antiviral drug candidates which could be a potential area of research in drug discovery.
Micronutrients, Phytochemicals and Mediterranean Diet: A Potential Protective Role against COVID-19 through Modulation of PAF Actions and Metabolism.
The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an emerging situation with high rates of morbidity and mortality, in the pathophysiology of which inflammation and thrombosis are implicated. The disease is directly connected to the nutritional status of patients and a well-balanced diet is recommended by official sources. Recently, the role of platelet activating factor (PAF) was suggested in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In the present review several micronutrients (vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin D, selenium, omega-3 fatty acids, and minerals), phytochemicals and Mediterranean diet compounds with potential anti-COVID activity are presented. We further underline that the well-known anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic actions of the investigated nutrients and/or holistic dietary schemes, such as the Mediterranean diet, are also mediated through PAF. In conclusion, there is no single food to prevent coronavirus Although the relationship between PAF and COVID-19 is not robust, a healthy diet containing PAF inhibitors may target both inflammation and thrombosis and prevent the deleterious effects of COVID-19. The next step is the experimental confirmation or not of the PAF-COVID-19 hypothesis.
Immune-Boosting, Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Food Supplements Targeting Pathogenesis of COVID-19.
Frontiers in immunology. 2020;:570122
The COVID-19 is an acute and contagious disease characterized by pneumonia and ARDS. The disease is caused by SARS-CoV-2, which belongs to the family of Coronaviridae along with MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-1. The virus has the positive-sense RNA as its genome encoding for ~26 proteins that work together for the virus survival, replication, and spread in the host. The virus gets transmitted through the contact of aerosol droplets from infected persons. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is highly complex and involves suppression of host antiviral and innate immune response, induction of oxidative stress followed by hyper inflammation described as the "cytokine storm," causing the acute lung injury, tissue fibrosis, and pneumonia. Currently, several vaccines and drugs are being evaluated for their efficacy, safety, and for determination of doses for COVID-19 and this requires considerable time for their validation. Therefore, exploring the repurposing of natural compounds may provide alternatives against COVID-19. Several nutraceuticals have a proven ability of immune-boosting, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects. These include Zn, vitamin D, vitamin C, curcumin, cinnamaldehyde, probiotics, selenium, lactoferrin, quercetin, etc. Grouping some of these phytonutrients in the right combination in the form of a food supplement may help to boost the immune system, prevent virus spread, preclude the disease progression to severe stage, and further suppress the hyper inflammation providing both prophylactic and therapeutic support against COVID-19.