Herbal immune-boosters: Substantial warriors of pandemic Covid-19 battle.
Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 2021;:153361
Current scenario depicts that world has been clenched by COVID-19 pandemic. Inevitably, public health and safety measures could be undertaken in order to dwindle the infection threat and mortality. Moreover, to overcome the global menace and drawing out world from moribund stage, there is an exigency for social distancing and quarantines. Since December, 2019, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) have came into existence and up till now world is still in the state of shock.At this point of time, COVID-19 has entered perilous phase, creating havoc among individuals, and this has been directly implied due to enhanced globalisation and ability of the virus to acclimatize at all conditions. The unabated transmission is due to lack of drugs, vaccines and therapeutics against this viral outbreak. But research is still underway to formulate the vaccines or drugs by this means, as scientific communities are continuously working to unravel the pharmacologically active compounds that might offer a new insight for curbing infections and pandemics. Therefore, the topical COVID-19 situation highlights an immediate need for effective therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2. Towards this effort, the present review discusses the vital concepts related to COVID-19, in terms of its origin, transmission, clinical aspects and diagnosis. However, here, we have formulated the novel concept hitherto, ancient means of traditional medicines or herbal plants to beat this pandemic.
Traditional herbal medicines to overcome stress, anxiety and improve mental health in outbreaks of human coronaviruses.
Phytotherapy research : PTR. 2021;(3):1237-1247
Mental health condition is including depression and anxiety, and they may impact wellbeing, personal relationships and productivity of both genders. Herbal medicines have been used to treatment of anxiety and depression symptoms for centuries. SARS, MERS and COVID-19 are related to coronavirus types. SARS (sever acute respiratory syndrome, China, 2002), MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome, Saudi Arabia, 2012), and SARS-CoV-2 (2019-2020) are the main coronavirus outbreaks. Both anxiety and depression are more serious to be considered and improved for all general public during fight with these diseases. In this mini-review article, we have mentioned the key role some of the most important plants and herbs for treatment of stress and anxiety and improve mental health against SARS and SARS-CoV-2 on the basis of traditional Asian medicine, especially traditional Chinese and Persian medicine.
A pharmacology-based comprehensive review on medicinal plants and phytoactive constituents possibly effective in the management of COVID-19.
Phytotherapy research : PTR. 2021;(4):1925-1938
Arisen in China, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-II) is a novel coronavirus that has been expanding fast worldwide. Till now, no definite remedial drug or vaccine has been identified for COVID-19 treatment. Still, for a majority of infected patients, supportive therapy is the cornerstone of the management plan. To the importance of managing the COVID-19 pandemic, this article proposed to collecting capable medicinal plants and bioactive components in both treat and supportive therapy of this novel viral infection. Clinical points in the pathogenesis, symptoms, and complications of COVID-19 were considered. The effective plants and bioactives that may play a role in supportive therapy/management of COVID-19 were searched, collected through the "Scopus" database and listed in three sections. Numerous medicinal plants such as Citrus Spp., Camellia sinensis, and Glycyrrhiza glabra can interference with COVID-19 pathogenesis via inhibition of virus replication and entry to its host cells. Also, some anti-inflammatory herbal medicine such as Andrographis paniculata, Citrus spp., and Cuminum cyminum can relieve fever and cough in COVID-19 patients. Medicinal plants such as G. glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Allium sativum, Althea officinalis, and Panax ginseng may modulate the immune system and possess prevention and supportive therapy. However, more clinical data are required to confirm these hypotheses.
Botanical drugs and supplements affecting the immune response in the time of COVID-19: Implications for research and clinical practice.
Phytotherapy research : PTR. 2021;(6):3013-3031
In times of health crisis, including the current COVID-19 pandemic, the potential benefit of botanical drugs and supplements emerges as a focus of attention, although controversial efficacy claims are rightly a concern. Phytotherapy has an established role in everyday self-care and health care, but, since botanical preparations contain many chemical constituents rather than single compounds, challenges arise in demonstrating efficacy and safety. However, there is ample traditional, empirical, and clinical evidence that botanicals can offer some protection and alleviation of disease symptoms as well as promoting general well-being. Newly emerging viral infections, specifically COVID-19, represent a unique challenge in their novelty and absence of established antiviral treatment or immunization. We discuss here the roles and limitations of phytotherapy in helping to prevent and address viral infections, especially regarding their effects on immune response. Botanicals with a documented immunomodulatory, immunostimulatory, and antiinflammatory effects include adaptogens, Boswellia spp., Curcuma longa, Echinacea spp., Glycyrrhiza spp., medicinal fungi, Pelargonium sidoides, salicylate-yielding herbs, and Sambucus spp. We further provide a clinical perspective on applications and safety of these herbs in prevention, onset, progression, and convalescence from respiratory viral infections.
Promising traditional Indian medicinal plants for the management of novel Coronavirus disease: A systematic review.
Phytotherapy research : PTR. 2021;(8):4456-4484
Traditional Indian medical practices (Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and homeopathy) are a vast reservoir of knowledge about medicinal plants. The promising pharmacological properties of these plants have paved the way for developing therapy against novel Coronavirus (CoV) infection. The current review will summarize published works of literature on the effects of traditional Indian medicinal plants against acute respiratory infection (COVID-19, SARS, Influenza, and Respiratory syncytial virus infection) and registered clinical trials of traditional Indian herbal medicines in COVID-19. The current study aims to comprehensively evaluate the data of traditional Indian medicinal plants to warrant their use in COVID-19 management. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched along with different clinical trial databases. A total of 22 relevant traditional Indian medicinal plants (35 relevant studies) were included in the current study having potential antiviral properties against virus-induced respiratory illness along with promising immunomodulatory and thrombolytic properties. Further, 36 randomized and nonrandomized registered clinical trials were also included that were aimed at evaluating the efficacy of herbal plants or their formulations in COVID-19 management. The antiviral, immunomodulatory, and thrombolytic activities of the traditional Indian medicinal plants laid down a strong rationale for their use in developing therapies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study identified some important potential traditional Indian medicinal herbs such as Ocimum tenuiflorum, Tinospora cordifolia, Achyranthes bidentata, Cinnamomum cassia, Cydonia oblonga, Embelin ribes, Justicia adhatoda, Momordica charantia, Withania somnifera, Zingiber officinale, Camphor, and Kabusura kudineer, which could be used in therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Randomized placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial on the efficacy of ayurvedic treatment regime on COVID-19 positive patients.
Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 2021;:153494
BACKGROUND Specific treatment for COVID-19 is still an unmet need. Outcomes of clinical trials on repurposed drugs have not been yielding success. Therefore, it is necessary to include complementary approaches of medicine against COVID-19. PURPOSE This study was designed to evaluate the impact of traditional Indian Ayurvedic treatment regime on asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 infection. STUDY DESIGN It is a placebo controlled randomized double-blind pilot clinical trial. METHODS The study was registered with Clinical Trial Registry-India (vide Registration No. CTRI/2020/05/025273) and conducted at the Department of Medicine in National Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jaipur, India. 1 g of Giloy Ghanvati (Tinospora cordifolia) and 2 g of Swasari Ras (traditional herbo-mineral formulation) and 0.5 g each of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) and Tulsi Ghanvati (Ocimum sanctum) were given orally to the patients in treatment group twice per day for 7 days. Medicines were given in the form of tablets and each tablet weighed 500 mg. While, Swasari Ras was administered in powdered form, 30 min before breakfasts and dinners, rest were scheduled for 30 min post-meals. Patients in the treatment group also received 4 drops of Anu taila (traditional nasal drop) in each nostril every day 1 h before breakfast. Patients in the placebo group received identical-looking tablets and drops, post randomization and double blinded assortments. RT-qPCR test was used for the detection of viral load in the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab samples of study participants during the study. Chemiluminescent immunometric assay was used to quantify serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) on day 1 and day 7 of the study. RESULTS By day 3, 71.1 % and 50.0 % patients recovered in the treatment and placebo groups, respectively. Treatment group witnessed 100 % recovery by day 7, while it was 60.0 % in the placebo group. Average fold changes in serum levels of hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α in treatment group were respectively, 12.4, 2.5 and 20 times lesser than those in the placebo group at day 7. There was 40 % absolute reduction in the risk of delayed recovery from infection in the treatment group. CONCLUSIONS Ayurvedic treatment can expedite virological clearance, help in faster recovery and concomitantly reduce the risk of viral dissemination. Reduced inflammation markers suggested less severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the treatment group. Moreover, there was no adverse effect observed to be associated with this treatment.
Evaluation of the Adjuvant Efficacy of Natural Herbal Medicine on COVID-19: A Retrospective Matched Case-Control Study.
The American journal of Chinese medicine. 2020;(4):779-792
Since the outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei province, the epidemic scale has increased rapidly, and no effective antiviral drug therapy has been identified yet. This study aimed to evaluate the adjuvant efficacy of Natural Herbal Medicine (NHM) combined with Western medicine in the treatment of COVID-19. We performed a retrospective, 1:1 matched, case-control study of the first cohort of hospitalized COVID-19-confirmed cases (January 17, 2020 to January 28, 2020). A total of 22 of the 36 confirmed patients were included in this study, split into two groups of 11: the NHM group (NHM combined standard Western medicine treatment) and control group (standard Western medicine treatment alone). All patients received appropriate supportive care and regular clinical and laboratory monitoring. Main evaluation indicators included improvement of clinical symptoms such as fever, cough and diarrhea after hospitalization; pathogen nucleic acid test result of respiratory tract and fecal specimens of the patient after hospitalization, and change of chest CT examination after hospitalization. The duration of fever in the NHM group ([Formula: see text] days) was significantly shorter than that in the control group ([Formula: see text] days) ([Formula: see text]). During the whole hospitalization period, the number of cases with diarrhea in the NHM group (two cases) was less than that in the control group (eight cases) ([Formula: see text]). Compared with the control group ([Formula: see text]), the duration for improvement (DI) of chest CT in the NHM group ([Formula: see text]) was significantly shorter ([Formula: see text]). Our results suggest that NHM could improve the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients and may be effective in treating COVID-19; thus, a larger, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial should be conducted to further evaluate the adjuvant efficacy of NHM in the treatment of COVID-19.
Herbal medicine, a reliable support in COVID therapy.
Journal of immunoassay & immunochemistry. 2020;(6):976-999
At present, specific therapies for COVID-19 are not well established, being certain only that the immune system plays a decisive role in the initiation and progression of the disease. Plants have given and continue to give compounds with great efficiency and low toxicity, some of them being a starting point for extremely effective synthetic substances. Although herbal remedies are used mainly for preventive purposes, there are also guidelines issued by some countries that indicate the use of traditional remedies for different stages of COVID-19 disease.Europe has a long and strong tradition of using medicinal plants for therapeutic purposes, but clinical trials for this type of approach are scarce, compared to Asia. In this regard, a bridge between tradition and science, would have a strong impact on the capacity for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. The paper reviews compounds of plant origin that have previously proven effective in counteracting some coronaviruses but also some of their major effects - direct action on virus replicative apparatus (viral entry or replication, action on the viral enzymatic system), collateral action of natural compounds on the immune system and also the contribution of herbal medicine as vaccine adjuvants are tackled.
Behavioral preventive measures and the use of medicines and herbal products among the public in response to Covid-19 in Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study.
PloS one. 2020;(12):e0243706
The present study was conducted to assess the behavioral preventive measures and the use of medicines and herbal foods/products among the public in response to Covid-19. A cross-sectional survey comprised of 1222 participants was conducted from 27 June to 20 July 2020. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to identify the differences in behavioral preventive practices across different demographic categories. To identify the factors associated with the use of preventive medicines and herbal foods/products, multivariable logistic regression was performed. Most participants adopted the recommended preventive practices such as washing hands more frequently (87.5%), staying home more often (85.5%), avoiding crowds (86%), and wearing masks (91.6%). About half of the smokers reported a decreased rate of smoking during the pandemic. Also, 14.8% took medicines, 57.6% took herbal foods/products, and 11.2% took both medicines and herbal foods/products as preventive measure against Covid-19. Arsenicum album, vitamin supplements, and zinc supplements were the most commonly used preventive medicines. Gender, age, and fear of Covid-19 were significantly associated with the use of both preventive medicines and herbal foods/products. For the management of Covid-19 related symptoms, paracetamol, antihistamines, antibiotics, and mineral (zinc and calcium) supplements were used most often. Most participants sought information from non-medical sources while using medicines and herbal products. Moreover, potentially inappropriate and unnecessary use of certain drugs was identified.
Effects of Ginger on clinical manifestations and paraclinical features of patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome due to COVID-19: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
OBJECTIVES We investigate the effects of Ginger, compared to the usual therapeutic regimen on clinical manifestations and paraclinical features in patients with confirmed COVID-19 that are moderately ill. TRIAL DESIGN This is a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with parallel group design. PARTICIPANTS Inclusion criteria: 1. Patients admitted to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Departments at Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Bandar Abbas, Iran 2. Age ≥18 years (weight ≥35 kg) 3. Hospitalized ≤48 hours 4. Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis (Positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)) 5. Moderate pneumonia and lung involvement in imaging 6. Signing informed consent and willingness of study participant to accept randomization to any assigned treatment arm Exclusion criteria: 1. Underlying diseases, including heart disease, chronic hypertension, severe renal failure, severe liver failure, and thyroid disorders 2. Use of warfarin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), diuretics, corticosteroids, and antiarrhythmic drugs 3. Severe and critical pneumonia 4. History of known allergy to Ginger 5. Pregnancy and breastfeeding INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR Intervention group: The standard treatment regimen for COVID-19 along with Ginger-based herbal tablets (Vomigone ®, Dineh Pharmaceutical Company, Iran) at a dose of 1000 mg three times a day for a period of seven days. CONTROL GROUP The standard treatment for COVID-19 based on the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education's protocol, along with Vomigone-like placebo tablets (Dineh Pharmaceutical Company, Iran) at a dose of two tablets three times a day for a period of seven days. MAIN OUTCOMES The primary outcome is recovery rate of clinical symptoms, including fever, dry cough, tiredness, and GI symptoms as well as paraclinical features, including thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, and C-reactive protein within seven days of randomization. Time to improvement of clinical and paraclinical features along with the incidence of serious adverse events are the secondary outcomes within seven days of randomization. RANDOMIZATION An interactive web-based system will be used to allocate eligible participants, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, to one of the two study arms (in a 1:1 ratio) using block randomization. BLINDING (MASKING): All study participants, research coordinators, clinicians, nurses, and investigators will be blinded to the group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total of 84 participants will be randomized into two groups of 42 patients. TRIAL STATUS The protocol is Version 1.0, May 23, 2020. Recruitment began July 21, 2020, and is anticipated to be completed by October 30, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION This clinical trial has been registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT). The registration number is " IRCT20200506047323N1 ". Registration date is 23 May 2020. FULL PROTOCOL The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.