Medicinal Plants and Zinc: Impact on COVID-19 Pandemic.
The world is currently grappling with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The infection can cause fever, a dry cough, fatigue, severe pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome, and in some cases death. There is currently no effective antiviral SARS-CoV-2 drug. To reduce the number of infections and deaths, it is critical to focus on strengthening immunity. This review aims to conduct a comprehensive search on the previous studies using Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Medline, PubMed, and Scopus for the collection of research papers based on the role of zinc in the immune system, the antiviral activity of zinc, the effect of zinc supplementation in respiratory infections, the therapeutic approaches against viral infections based on medicinal plants, and the role of plants' bioactive molecules in fighting viral infections. In conclusion, we highlighted the pivotal role of zinc in antiviral immunity and we suggested the bioactive molecules derived from medicinal plants as a search matrix for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs.
Potential roles of medicinal plants for the treatment of viral diseases focusing on COVID-19: A review.
Phytotherapy research : PTR. 2021;(3):1298-1312
The whole world is entangled by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), people are dying in thousands each day, and without an actual medication, it seems not possible for the bringing this global health crisis to a stop. Natural products have been in constant use since ancient times and are proven by time to be effective. Crude extract or pure compounds isolated from medicinal plants and/or herbs such as Artemisia annua, Agastache rugosa, Astragalus membranaceus, Cassia alata, Ecklonia cava, Gymnema sylvestre, Glycyrrhizae uralensis, Houttuynia cordata, Lindera aggregata, Lycoris radiata, Mollugo cerviana, Polygonum multiflorum, Pyrrosia lingua, Saposhnikoviae divaricate, Tinospora cordifolia etc. have shown promising inhibitory effect against coronavirus. Several molecules, including acacetin, amentoflavone, allicin, blancoxanthone, curcumin, daidzein, diosmin, epigallocatechin-gallate, emodin, hesperidin, herbacetin, hirsutenone, iguesterin, jubanine G, kaempferol, lycorine, pectolinarin, phloroeckol, silvestrol, tanshinone I, taxifolin, rhoifolin, xanthoangelol E, zingerol etc. isolated from plants could also be potential drug candidates against COVID-19. Moreover, these could also show promising inhibitory effects against influenza-parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Here, we have reported 93 antiviral drug candidates which could be a potential area of research in drug discovery.
Botanical drugs and supplements affecting the immune response in the time of COVID-19: Implications for research and clinical practice.
Phytotherapy research : PTR. 2021;(6):3013-3031
In times of health crisis, including the current COVID-19 pandemic, the potential benefit of botanical drugs and supplements emerges as a focus of attention, although controversial efficacy claims are rightly a concern. Phytotherapy has an established role in everyday self-care and health care, but, since botanical preparations contain many chemical constituents rather than single compounds, challenges arise in demonstrating efficacy and safety. However, there is ample traditional, empirical, and clinical evidence that botanicals can offer some protection and alleviation of disease symptoms as well as promoting general well-being. Newly emerging viral infections, specifically COVID-19, represent a unique challenge in their novelty and absence of established antiviral treatment or immunization. We discuss here the roles and limitations of phytotherapy in helping to prevent and address viral infections, especially regarding their effects on immune response. Botanicals with a documented immunomodulatory, immunostimulatory, and antiinflammatory effects include adaptogens, Boswellia spp., Curcuma longa, Echinacea spp., Glycyrrhiza spp., medicinal fungi, Pelargonium sidoides, salicylate-yielding herbs, and Sambucus spp. We further provide a clinical perspective on applications and safety of these herbs in prevention, onset, progression, and convalescence from respiratory viral infections.
Therapeutic opportunities of edible antiviral plants for COVID-19.
Molecular and cellular biochemistry. 2021;(6):2345-2364
The pandemic of Serious Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that produces corona virus disease (COVID-19) has challenged the entire mankind by rapidly spreading globally in 210 countries affecting over 25 million people and about 1 million deaths worldwide. It continues to spread, afflicting the health system globally. So far there is no remedy for the ailment and the available antiviral regimens have been unsatisfactory for the clinical outcomes and the mode of treatment has been mainly supportive for the prevention of COVID-19-induced morbidity and mortality. From the time immortal the traditional plant-based ethno-medicines have provided the leads for the treatment of infectious diseases. Phytopharmaceuticals have provided potential and less toxic antiviral drugs as compared to conventional modern therapeutics which are associated with severe toxicities. The ethnopharmacological knowledge about plants has provided food supplements and nutraceuticals as a promise for prevention and treatment of the current pandemic. In this review article, we have attempted to comprehend the information about the edible medicinal plant materials with potential antiviral activity specifically against RNA virus which additionally possess property to improve immunity along with external and internal respiration and exhibit anti-inflammatory properties for the prevention and treatment of the disease. This will open an arena for the development of novel nutraceutical herbal formulations as an alternative therapy that can be used for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
A pharmacology-based comprehensive review on medicinal plants and phytoactive constituents possibly effective in the management of COVID-19.
Phytotherapy research : PTR. 2021;(4):1925-1938
Arisen in China, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-II) is a novel coronavirus that has been expanding fast worldwide. Till now, no definite remedial drug or vaccine has been identified for COVID-19 treatment. Still, for a majority of infected patients, supportive therapy is the cornerstone of the management plan. To the importance of managing the COVID-19 pandemic, this article proposed to collecting capable medicinal plants and bioactive components in both treat and supportive therapy of this novel viral infection. Clinical points in the pathogenesis, symptoms, and complications of COVID-19 were considered. The effective plants and bioactives that may play a role in supportive therapy/management of COVID-19 were searched, collected through the "Scopus" database and listed in three sections. Numerous medicinal plants such as Citrus Spp., Camellia sinensis, and Glycyrrhiza glabra can interference with COVID-19 pathogenesis via inhibition of virus replication and entry to its host cells. Also, some anti-inflammatory herbal medicine such as Andrographis paniculata, Citrus spp., and Cuminum cyminum can relieve fever and cough in COVID-19 patients. Medicinal plants such as G. glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Allium sativum, Althea officinalis, and Panax ginseng may modulate the immune system and possess prevention and supportive therapy. However, more clinical data are required to confirm these hypotheses.
The Antiviral, Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Natural Medicinal Herbs and Mushrooms and SARS-CoV-2 Infection.
The 2019 novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, producing the disease COVID-19 is a pathogenic virus that targets mostly the human respiratory system and also other organs. SARS-CoV-2 is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans, however there have been previous outbreaks of different versions of the beta coronavirus including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV1) from 2002 to 2003 and the most recent Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) which was first identified in 2012. All of the above have been recognised as major pathogens that are a great threat to public health and global economies. Currently, no specific treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection has been identified; however, certain drugs have shown apparent efficacy in viral inhibition of the disease. Natural substances such as herbs and mushrooms have previously demonstrated both great antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity. Thus, the possibilities of natural substances as effective treatments against COVID-19 may seem promising. One of the potential candidates against the SARS-CoV-2 virus may be Inonotus obliquus (IO), also known as chaga mushroom. IO commonly grows in Asia, Europe and North America and is widely used as a raw material in various medical conditions. In this review, we have evaluated the most effective herbs and mushrooms, in terms of the antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects which have been assessed in laboratory conditions.
Herbal medicine, a reliable support in COVID therapy.
Journal of immunoassay & immunochemistry. 2020;(6):976-999
At present, specific therapies for COVID-19 are not well established, being certain only that the immune system plays a decisive role in the initiation and progression of the disease. Plants have given and continue to give compounds with great efficiency and low toxicity, some of them being a starting point for extremely effective synthetic substances. Although herbal remedies are used mainly for preventive purposes, there are also guidelines issued by some countries that indicate the use of traditional remedies for different stages of COVID-19 disease.Europe has a long and strong tradition of using medicinal plants for therapeutic purposes, but clinical trials for this type of approach are scarce, compared to Asia. In this regard, a bridge between tradition and science, would have a strong impact on the capacity for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. The paper reviews compounds of plant origin that have previously proven effective in counteracting some coronaviruses but also some of their major effects - direct action on virus replicative apparatus (viral entry or replication, action on the viral enzymatic system), collateral action of natural compounds on the immune system and also the contribution of herbal medicine as vaccine adjuvants are tackled.