Metabolic consequences of obesity and type 2 diabetes: Balancing genes and environment for personalized care.
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity has risen dramatically for decades and is expected to rise further, secondary to the growing aging, sedentary population. The strain on global health care is projected to be colossal. This review explores the latest work and emerging ideas related to genetic and environmental factors influencing metabolism. Translational research and clinical applications, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, are highlighted. Looking forward, strategies to personalize all aspects of prevention, management and care are necessary to improve health outcomes and reduce the impact of these metabolic diseases.
Identification and Engineering of Aptamers for Theranostic Application in Human Health and Disorders.
International journal of molecular sciences. 2021;(18)
An aptamer is a short sequence of synthetic oligonucleotides which bind to their cognate target, specifically while maintaining similar or higher sensitivity compared to an antibody. The in-vitro selection of an aptamer, applying a conjoining approach of chemistry and molecular biology, is referred as Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX). These initial products of SELEX are further modified chemically in an attempt to make them stable in biofluid, avoiding nuclease digestion and renal clearance. While the modification is incorporated, enough care should be taken to maintain its sensitivity and specificity. These modifications and several improvisations have widened the window frame of aptamer applications that are currently not only restricted to in-vitro systems, but have also been used in molecular imaging for disease pathology and treatment. In the food industry, it has been used as sensor for detection of different diseases and fungal infections. In this review, we have discussed a brief history of its journey, along with applications where its role as a therapeutic plus diagnostic (theranostic) tool has been demonstrated. We have also highlighted the potential aptamer-mediated strategies for molecular targeting of COVID-19. Finally, the review focused on its future prospective in immunotherapy, as well as in identification of novel biomarkers in stem cells and also in single cell proteomics (scProteomics) to study intra or inter-tumor heterogeneity at the protein level. Small size, chemical synthesis, low batch variation, cost effectiveness, long shelf life and low immunogenicity provide advantages to the aptamer over the antibody. These physical and chemical properties of aptamers render them as a strong biomedical tool for theranostic purposes over the existing ones. The significance of aptamers in human health was the key finding of this review.